Find an equation of a line that passes through the point (A, B 1) and is perpendicular to the line Ax By C. Assume that A and B are both nonzero.
Thursday, March 24, 2016 Ch.9 Communism & Post-communism Communism- set of ideas viewing political, social, and economic institutions in a manner fundamentally different from most politically thought — ideology that seeks to create human equality by eliminating private property and market forces. traced back to German philosopher Karl Marx (1818-83) observation: human beings impart value to the objects they create by investing their own time and labor into them; This value can be greater than the cost of creating the object Terms in Marxist theory Surplus value of labor— value invested in man-made good that can be used by someone else. exploitation results when someone extracts the surplus value from another Base — economic system of a society, made up of technology (means of production) and class relations between people (relations of production) Superstructure — all noneconomic institutions in a society. these values derive from the base and serve to legitimize the current system of exploitation False consciousness - failure to understand the nature of one’s exploitation; buying into the superstructure Dialectical materialism — process of historical change not evolutionary but revolutionary. existing base & superstructure come into conﬂict with new technological innovations, creating more opposition to existing order. culminate in revolution, overthrowing old base & superstructure dictatorship of the proletariat — temporary period after capitalism has been overthrown during which vestiges of the old base & superstructure are eradicated proletariat- working class bourgeoisie - property-owning class Communism — ﬁnal stage of history after capitalism and dictatorship of the proletariat destroys remaining vestiges. state & politics disappear, society & economy based on equality & cooperation 1 Thursday, March 24, 2016 vanguard of the proletariat - Lenin’s term for a small revolutionary movement that could seize power on behalf of people, who mack lack consciousness to rise up Marx’s Phases of Human History Feudalism Capitalist Democracy Dictatorship of the proletariat Communist utopia because Marx left no blueprint about how communism should rise after revolution, the institutions created varied widely many based on forms ﬁrst built in Soviet Union their regimes became somewhat totalitarian in an attempt to change all basic human institutions nomenklatura — politically sensitive jobs in state, society, or economy staffed by people chosen by the Communist Party party approval often required party membership Figures in Communism Lenin (Vladimir) — applied Marxist thought to Russia, successful revolution in 1917- said revolution would only occur in struggling countries Stalin — succeeded Lenin as leader of Soviet Union; rapid industrialization of country, argues socialism could be built within just a single country, extended communism to eastern Europe after WWII Mao Zedong — led the Chinese Communist Party, had communism focus on peasantry instead of working class, unleashed cultural revolution in 1966 to weaken party and increase his own power Deng Xiaoping - fought against Zedong during WWII; named general secretary of CCP in 1956, became country leader after Zedong’s death Fidel Castro- led cuban revolution in 1956; continues to defend cuban socialism despite collapse of soviet union 2 Thursday, March 24, 2016 Mikhail Gorbachev — general secretary of soviet union in 1985, initiated perestroika (econ restructuring) and glasnost (political liberalization) ultimately led to dissolution of soviet union Politburo and Central Committee acted as a kind of cabinet and legislature, shaping national policy and conﬁrming decisions of party leadership Stalin used terror to intimidate Mao unleashed cultural revolution, his targets included the party-state - he believed grew conservative and was restricting his power — his slogan “ bombard the party headquarters” Communist political system central planning - replaces market with state bureaucracy, decided what to be produced, in what amount, for what price market and property are wholly absorbed by the state individual property rights, individual proﬁt, unemployment, competition between forms, and bankruptcy are eliminated most of nation’s mean of production are nationalized economy functions as a single large ﬁrm whose sole employees are the public state provides extensive public goods and social services, including universal systems of public education, health care, and retirement Societallnsttutonnunnder Commmuunism INSTITUTION IDEAL REALITY Religion religion, “the opiate of the was suppressed but not masses,” will disappear eliminated Gender Roles men and women will be opportunities for women economically socially, and increased, but women were still politically equal expected to fulﬁll traditional duties in the home Sexuality repressive institutions like many communist countries marriage will be replaces by “anremained very sexually openly legalized system of free conservative love” 3 Thursday, March 24, 2016 Societalnssttuton undeerCommmuunism Nationalism nationalism, exposed as part ofthough discouraged from doing the elite’s “divide and conquerso, people clung to old national strategy, will be eliminated and ethnic identities Collapse of Communism reemergence of Cold war struggles w/ US and Soviet Union in 50s/60s period of detente - peaceful coexistence — lasting less than a decade SU invaded Afganistan in 1979 to prop up failing communist regime Reagan elected president of US in 1980 and sourced relation between 2 countries growing economic stagnation made it hard for SU to ﬁght against US this is when Gorbachev initiated twin policies of glasnost which encourages public debate with the hope that a frank discussion of the system’s shortcomings would help foster chance and increase legitimacy of regime AND perestroika which was actual institutional reforms in the economy and political system most dangerous moment for a bad government is when it begins to reform itself in 1989 civil society rapidly reasserted itself across eastern Europe by 1991, SU was in turmoil: limited reforms has increased public’s appetite for greater change post-communism, outside eastern Europe and SU, democracy is slow to spread in an attempt to reestablish separation between state and economy; their is a need for privatization (transfer of state-held property into private hands) and marketization (re- creation of market forces of supply and demand) transition from communism to capitalism requires redeﬁnition of property some advocate rapid market reforms that would free prices and bring an end to central planning and state subsidies for businesses virtually overnight — shock therapy might trigger high rates of inﬂation 4 Thursday, March 24, 2016 5