nd the equation of each circle. Centered at (2, 3) and passing through the point (3, 7).
Timeline Supreme Court cases Legislation Important things ● 1887 ○ Federal government instituted a policy of assimilation. ○ Native languages and rituals were banned. ○ School were limited and tightly controlled. ● 1896 ○ Plessy v Ferguson ■ approved segregated facilities ● 1938 ○ Gaines v Canada ■ Missouri had a law school that was reserved for white students. There was no law school in the state that admitted black students. When a black student was denied entrance at the University of Missouri. The student sought awrit of mandamus to be admitted ● 1944 ○ NAACP party control ■ NAACP turn this down via the Supreme Court in 1944 “the party couldn’t make that decision because the party is an extension of the government” ● 1946 ○ Oklahoma state law ■ women denied from law school. Thurgood Marshall fought for her to go to school. She was the first African american woman to become the first women on the Oklahoma board of regents ● 1948 ○ housing Covenanters illegal ● 1950 ○ McLaurin v Oklahoma state regent ■ A Student seeking a doctoral degree in Education was admitted to the University of Oklahoma but was segregated within the institution ● It was separate just not equal ○ Sweatt v Painter ■ Case involved University of Texas Law school and its substandard relative created just for black students. ● 1954 ○ Brown v Board ■ Because the Supreme Court began ruling on a different question: can separate but equal ever be equal In this case the supreme court answered that question by saying No: ● “We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of “separate but equal” has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” ■ Of course that was not the end of the story. it took many more years before schools were actually integrated. and in many of those cases federal action was needed ● Heart of Atlanta v US ○ due to the advertisement in other states it is an interstate commerce this ends Jim Crow laws ● 1960 ○ Ruby Bridges is the first student to desegregate ● 1963 ○ Equal pay act ● 1964 ○ Civil rights act of 1964 ■ cut off federal aid to school districts still practicing segregation ■ Only part where women are mentioned is in the provision about employment ● 1965 ○ Voting rights act of 1965 (civil rights act of 1965) ● 1968 ○ Civil rights act of 1968 ■ Can not discriminate the sale of housing based on race, religion color, national origin, sex, and ildren ● 1971 ○ Supreme Court ruling equal protection ■ First time supreme court ruled that a law which discriminated on basis of sex violated tqual protection clause ● 1972 ○ Education amendment ○ Supreme Court ruling intermediate scrutiny ■ The Supreme Court recognizentermediate scrutinys the standard for assessing laws and actions that treat women and men differently ● 1974 ○ Equal credit opportunity act ■ Allows women to be added to their spouse's credit card to help build their credit while they stayed me ● 1990 ○ the Americans with Disabilities Act became law. The law extends the protections of thCivil Rights Act of 1to persons with disabilities. Vocabulary ● Civil Rights Legislation ○ Covenants ■ the deed of the house states that the house can only be sold to white people because the community also had a covenant the community remains white ○ Invidious classification ■ Harmful classification based on ● Race ● Ethnicity ● National origin ● Religion ● Gender ● Sexual orientation ● Political views ○ Discrimination ■ refer to irrational suspicion or hatred of people, and differential treatment on the basis of their race, religion, sex, skin color, ethnic background, national origin, or sexual orientation ○ Jim Crow laws ■ Laws passed to create a segregated society ○ NAACP legal defense and education fund ■ key to bringing suits against the states ■ Thurgood Marshall was crucial to NAACP ○ Writ of mandamus ■ Is a court order to a public official ordering him or her to do what they are supposed to do ○ Civil rights act 1964 ■ cut off federal aid to school districts still practicing segregation ● Title 2 of the civil rights act of 1964 Makes it an offense to discriminate against any customer or patron in a place of public accommodation because of race, color, religion or national origin. ● Only part where women are mentioned is in the provision about employment ○ Civil rights act of 1965 (Voting rights act of 1965) ○ Civil rights act of 1968 ■ Can not discriminate the sale of housing based on race, religion color, national origin, sex, and children ○ white primaries ■ General elections open to everyone but primaries exclusively for whites ○ Poll taxes ■ To vote, one Haide to pay a fee. They were really small amounts but they were cumulative ○ Literacy test ■ Very difficult to pass ○ Limited registration ■ Offices open perhaps one to two days per month ● 1965Movement led by SCLC (MLK) and SNCC with a focus in alabama from Selma to montgomery (50 miles) . Later known as Bloody Sunday. Met by Alabama state troopers on horseback with cattle prods, tear gas and forced them to go back. 90% of Americans had a tv and saw photos of it ● LBJ tells congress to pass theoting rights act of 1965 (civil rights act of 1965) ○ Bloody Sunday ○ Patriarchy ■ is a form of social organization in which the man is recognized as the head of the family ■ is the dominant legal, religious, and cultural view in the world today ○ The feminine mystique ■ Talked about how unhappy women were because the female american dream was different than the male American Dream this awoke females across nation ○ Republican mother ■ Cultural ideal from beginnings of the nation ■ From beginning until around 1908 ○ Romantic paternalism ■ This was the legal standard: women needed some protection in the workplace. Many laws were adopted me including restrictions on hours, amount women could be required to lift and so on ○ Protectionism ○ Equal pay act of 1963 ■ Women and men have to receive equal pay for equal work, with exceptions for merit, productivity, and seniority ○ Education amendment 1972 ○ Equal credit act of 1974 ■ Allows women to be added to their spouse's credit card to help build their credit while they stayed home ○ The equal rights amendment ■ In 1972 it was purposed and sent to the states to have 10 years to be ratified. All but three states ratified. Seen more as symbolic by the women's movement ○ Lulac league of United Latin American citizens and Maldef Mexican American legal defense and education fund ○ Cesar Chavez ■ organized farm workers and brought about better conditions for those that work in the field, got ballots printed in spanish for people to vote ● Legislative branch ○ Session ■ Each year of congress ○ Political party ■ How congress is organized ○ Reapportioned ■ After each Census, districts have to be redrawn and Members reallocated. The 435 members are ○ Redistricting ■ When district lines are redrawn ○ Jerry meandering ■ when districts are drawn politically ○ pork barrel spending Important things to know ● Civil rights ○ Rational based test ■ Is this classification rationburden is on the persowho objects to the classification to show why it is not. ■ Does it make sense to divide people at 21 (those who drink and those who don’t) ○ Strict scrutiny test ■ This test applies when laws or practices divide peace y r ■ Those passing such a law or using such a practice must show that it serves a compelling government interest ● Affirmative action is the only law to pass this test ○ Intermediate scrutiny test ■ This is the inbetween category. dividing peoexis in this category. thereby allowing for men and women to be treated differently in certain instances, like the military draft. such classifications must serve an important government purpose ● Burden in on the government ○ Most of these rulings deal with physical things in regards to women (pregnancy) ● Think of the draft only men sign up for the draft not wome ○ Ruby bridges 1960 ■ First child to integrate schools in New Orleans. She is accompanied by U.S. Marshals ○ Lunch counter sitin Greensboro, North Carolina ● Legislative branch ○ Differences ● House Senate ● Every house member ● Every senator represents a represents a district state ● Serves 2 year ● Serves 6 year terms ● House must originate revenue ● Approves presidential bills closer to people appointments (cabinet, courts) ● House initiates impeachment ● Approves treaties and passes articles of ● Holds trails on Articles of impeachment impeachment ● Has a rules committee, which ● Water leadershipindividual controls debate power senators very powerful centralized around speaker ● Can filibuster legislation relatively high turnover ● 100 members with two from compared with senate each state ● 435 members based on size of state ■