If ab is algebraic over F and b ? 0, prove that a is algebraic over F(b).
▯ Personality Ch. 13 ▯ ESSAY ALERT: ▯ Four general Theoretical Approaches to Personality development 1. Psychoanalytic Approach: these theories assume that personality is shaped by several inner conflicting forces. 2. Trait/Genetic Approach: these theories assume that our personalities are made up of traits largely inherited form our biological parents and ancestors. 3. Humanistic Approach: these theories assume that we all strive for perfection and out of this striving personality develops. 4. Cognitive/social-learning approach: these theories assume that our personalities are shaped by the environment (i.e., that external forces shape personality) Some believe that personality is learned Note: No single approach is right or wrong. ▯ Psychoanalytic Approach Freud’s Approach Psychoanalytic Theory Why has Freud’s theory been so impactful o It’s a GLOBAL theory It attempts to explain all human behavior Unfortunately, this is also the theory’s major drawback o It’s impossible to test or validate Two instincts: sex and aggression o Were all trying to maximize ratifying the two instincts, while at the same time minimizing the possibility of being punished or feeling guilty. Three levels of the mind (consciousness) o Conscious o Preconscious (tip of the tongue phenomenon) o Unconscious Id Ego Superego 3 Components of Personality o Id: where the instinctual energy is located Source of sexual/aggression energy Pleasure principle Needs immediate gratification Demanding and irrational No concern with morality/ethics/reality If you didn’t have an Id you’d be beating people up and raping everyone o Ego: seeks sexual and aggressive pleasure, but only in accordance with reality. Satisfies the id’s needs without causing the individual harm Reality principle Helps the id o Superego: moral faction of personality Controls the id by internalizing parental authority voice in the back of the head telling you to do the right thing developed through upbringing big weapon when ignored is guilt Our unique personality depends, in part, on the relative strengths of our id, ego and superego For example/// o When id strongest -> Ted Bundy (murder) o When superego strongest -> Mother Theresa (saints) When three elements are out of balance “free-floating anxiety” develops. The ego deals with getting rid of this anxiety through “ego defense mechanisms” o Behavioral strategies that we unconsciously use to distort or deny reality (read about these in the text) ▯ The development of personality Freud focused primarily on the “life force” or sexual energy. He called this energy “libido” (or libidinal energy) o Force is in the id o Focuses on immediate sexual gratification o We are born with this pleasure-seeking energy o As we develop from infants… This is libidinal energy focuses on different parts of our bodies at various ages And, each body part brings actual sexual pleasure at that particular age. o So in the libidinal energy tries to attain pleasure at each stage If pleasure is not attained at a certain stage, we get “stuck” at that stage We become “fixated” at that state and this is produces abnormal behaviors later in life Personality develops while passing through the stages o Freud’s Psychosexual Stages 1. Oral Stage (birth – 1.5 yrs): sexual energy centers on attaining pleasure form mouth region 2. Anal Stage (1.5-3yrs): pleasure is attained form the anal area. During potty training, children find bowel movements pleasurable. Two basic adult personality types will develop if a child becomes fixated at the anal stage Anal retentive (neat, clean, tidy) Anal expulsive (messy, dirty, slobs) – didn’t get pleasure during anal stage 3. Phallic Stage (3-6 yrs): several landmark insights occur to the child during this stage: the child learns the physiological difference between males and females child becomes aware of sexuality child becomes aware of the sexual nature of the relationship between mom and dad Period of “homo-social bonding” – boys play with boys and girls play with girls – cooties An important complex must be resolved at this stage for the child to grow into a sexually healthy adult For males – Oedipus complex For females – electra complex Oedipal complex (males only) o A sexual desire for mother develops o A hatred for father develops o Fear of castration by father if he should learn of the love for the mother o Resolution: boys finally come to grips with the fact that they can’t have their mother sexually, and a warm relationship develops with mom and a “pal” relationship with dad o The boy beings to imitate dad’s behavior to get mom’s attention Electra complex (females only) o The girl realizes she doesn’t have a penis o Develops “penis envy” (jealous of males for having penis) o Attaches love to father to “symbolically” attain a penis o A desire emerges to marry the father and have children with him o Resolution: most girls realize that marrying the father is impossible and begin to imitate the mother’s behavior in an effort to get the father’s attention Note: when both complexes, resolution is attained by identifying with the same- gender parent in hopes of attaining the attention of opposite-gender parent. 4. Latency stage (6-12 yrs): here the libido takes a much needed break 5. Genital stage (13 & up): stage we are in now o Note: Freud’s theory was based on the case-history of his own self-analysis and 12 mentally ill women! Why was sex such an important facet of Freud’s theory Freud believed that incorporating sex into his theory, it would give him a link to biology (a well- accepted science at the time). Trait Approach Trait theories assume that our personalities consists of characteristics that are largely inherited from out parents and ancestors Note: the goal of trait theories is to try to describe (not explain) personality That is these theorists attempt with their research to identify the major dimensions on which everyone’s personality differs. Big Give Personality Factors – OCEAN - o Emotional stability or neuroticism o Extraversion: reserved vs. outgoing o Openness: open to trying new things o Agreeableness: likely you are to agree or disagree o Conscientiousness: how aware you are your actions and their effects For the Big Five characteristics, personality assessment questionnaires have been developed Thus, we can calculate peoples’ personality scores on the 5 dimensions. It is still under debate as to whether or not people’s traits are truly genetically determined or simply learned from environment Recent data indicate that over 50% of individual differences in personality are, in fact, due to genetic influences o Study done at Minnesota called Minnesota Twin Studies