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# write each expression as a single logarithm.Example: 2 log

## Problem 34 Chapter 5

Algebra and Trigonometry | 3rd Edition

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Problem 34

write each expression as a single logarithm.Example: 2 log m + 5 log n = log(m2n5) 2 logbu 3 logbv

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Biology 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide (Folkerts) Kingdom Fungi v Characteristics • Heterotrophic: they don’t make their own food • Go through zygotic meiosis • Have cell walls made of chitin • Separate/nonseperate hyphae: thread like v Phylum Chytridiomycota • Aquatic fungi that have flagellated zoo spores • These are the only ones with flagellated spores • Harmful to amphibians • Moats ancient/Plesiomorphic v Phylum Zygomycota • Produce sporangia • The fuzzy white stuff that develops on food (bread molds, sugar molds) • Thick walled v Phylum Ascomycota • The sac fungi contain ascus - Ascus: a sack of sexually produced spores (sexual spores) - Conidia: asexual spores • Penicillum hotatum: the source of penicillin • Tolypoclaium inflatum: the source of immunosuppressant cyclosporine • Yeast: single celled and capable of budding • Urgetesum: LSD v Phylum Glomeromycota • Grows inside of higher plants v Phylum Basidiomycota • Includes mushrooms and toadstools • Hoasexual spores or gametangia • Sexual spores: basidiospores - The production of these is the only thing that happens in this phyla • Lichens: composite organisms, has 3 types: - Crustose: looks like dry chipped pain, and is the simplest growth form o Capable of photosynthesis (protobiont) o Capable of fungal functions (mycobiont) - Foliose: leaf like fungus that is above and below - Fruiticose: branch like • Imperfect fungi: has no known sexual stages - Aspergillus niger: black mold, a food contaminant - Trichophyton: athletes foot Biology 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide (Folkerts) Kingdom Animalia v Characteristics • Don’t have cell walls • Are multicellular • Have 3 types of births - Oviparous: laying an egg - Ovoviviparous: hold egg until hatching - Viviparous: giving birth • Heterotrophic • Ingestionàdigestionàegestion • Sexual/asexual reproduction (go through gametic meiosis) • If an organism is acoelomate, then it lacks a body cavity • 99% of this kingdom is invertebrae • Feeding structures include - Lophophore: a complex feeding structure - Trochophore: larval stages Phylum Porifera v Characteristics • Lack symmetry • Have a matrix made of mesophyll http://www.vcbio.science.ru.nl • Have 4 cell types - Choanocytes: help in filter feeding - Archaeocytes: play a role in food transport - Porocytes: holes of the sponge - Pinacocyte: flat cells covering outside/inside • Skeleton - Organic fibers: collagen, sponging - Inorganic spicules: calcareous, siliceous • Have 3 body types (pictured on the right) - Asconoid: one osculum - Syconoid: one osculum - Leucinoid: multiple oscula v Class Calcarea • Have spicules and are calcareous • Are marine and small Phylum Hexactinellida v Characteristics • “Glass sponges” • Are siliceous and deep water marine Biology 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide (Folkerts) • Have a fused layer of cells called a syncytium Phylu m Demospongiae v Characteristics • Have only leucon body types • These are marine and freshwater sponges • Have siliceous spicules/sponging Phylum Ctenophora v Characteristics • Have biridial symmetry • Have ctenes that help in movement and feeding • Diploblastic • Are transparent and bioluminescent • More than 200 species are known of today • Not strong swimmers and are mostly planktonic Phylum Radiata v Characteristics • Radial symmetry • Diploblastic • Have polyp and medusa forms Phylum Cnidaria v Characteristics • Contains jellyfish, corals, etc. • Very diverse v Class Hydrozoa • Have either polyp only or both polyp and medusa stages (medusa is dominant) • Have colonial polyps with polymorphism v Class Scyphozoa • “True jellyfish” • Medusa is the predominant stage • Upside down jellyfish: contains symbiotic algae that lives in the manubrium • Thimble and stalked jelly v Class Cubozoa • “Box jellyfish” • Chironex fleckeri (sea wasp) v Class Anthozoa • Polyp stage only, no medusa • Contain large polyps • Can have both sexual and asexual reproduction Biology 1030 Exam 3 Study Guide (Folkerts) Phylum Platyhelminthes v Characteristics • “Flat worms” • Triploblastic • Don’t have a body cavity • Protostome • They are flat so that the distance across the mesodermal tissue is minimized • Glide in water/mucus or do squiggle like a worm for movement • Have a branched digestive system which helps in good nutrient absorption, along with a pharynx that sucks in food particles • Can be regenerated (you can cut them up and they will grow back) • Have an excretory system that pumps out water - Flame cell: a cup shaped cell that connects to the ducts and creates water movement - Ducts: move water from flame cells into nephridiophores (where the water exists) • Have a nervous system that consists...

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