Projectile Motion Suppose that Karla hits a golf ball off a cliff 300 meters high with an initial speed of 40 meters per second at an angle of 45 to the horizontal on the Moon (gravity on the Moon is one-sixth of that on Earth). (a) Find parametric equations that describe the position of the ball as a function of time. (b) How long is the ball in the air? (c) Determine the horizontal distance that the ball traveled. (d) When is the ball at its maximum height? Determine the maximum height of the ball. (e) Using a graphing utility, simultaneously graph the equations found in part (a).
Tuesday, February 16, 2016 Lecture 8: Markets, Capitalism & Nature NR 002 Markets - Resources users - What markets do: • Balance supply and demand • Provide incentives • Resolve conflicts - Rational self-interest in market leads to economic well-being - Price mechanism, substitution, dynamic power of technological change Capitalist Market - Barter • Direct exchange of goods • Rough estimate of equivalence • Limited by what’s offered • In context of other social relationships Restricted by immediate resources • - Market • Exchange mediated by money • Value determined by supply & demand • Dramatic expansion of trade options (stockpiling) • Ignores social relationships • Resources flow within market range - Capitalism • Money 1 Tuesday, February 16, 2016 • Competition for resources * market share drives the economy • Generates value through trade in value (currencies, stocks, bonds, derivatives) • Ignores social relationshops & material restrictions - Capitalism is… a system of economic practices based on the private ownership of the means of production, in which wealth is created & personal profit can be made through the investment of capital, labor or ideas into a market economy • Private and/or corporate ownership of land, labor capital • Production of commodities • Wage labor • Profit motive • Competition Capitalism — a history in 3(1/2) episodes - Mercantilism & colonization (1450-1700) • States stimulate economies through foreign trade • Expansion of European commercial empires • Spread of people, plants, animals, practices - New resource bases - New labor pools - Living space for Europe’s ‘surplus population’ • World trade in bulk products; monocultures • Labor can be bought and sold • Local markets are globalized • Disclosure of the Commons - Private property - Democratization - Development of Enlightenment values 2 Tuesday, February 16, 2016 - Aboriginal presence in the Americas as reminder of another way of being - Industrialization (1700-1900s) • Begins in England in mid 1700s: coal, factory production • Production of raw materials for world-wide export • Urbanization; clearance of cultivable land and forests • Worsening of work and living conditions, health crises = intensive phase of capitalist development • Karl Marx on capitalism: exploits works —> alienates: people from products& process, workers from fellow workers, from selves & nature • Contradictions of Capitalism - Over-accumulation (concentration of wealth) • Underconsumption + overproduction - Undervaluation of environmental conditions • Environmental degradation —> harm to conditions of production and worker health • Over-extraction of resources —> limits growth - Finance Capitalism (1880-today) • Industrial cartels (monopolies, oligopolies) • Movement & management of money - Stock markets & financial speculation • Boom-and-bust cycles - Great Depression - Post WW2 US economic boom • Worker’s unrest, unstable trade system (war, depression) - Forist/Keynesian ‘compromise’: • State+Industry+Labor 3 Tuesday, February 16, 2016 - 1930-50: US post-war ‘boom’: • Mass industrial production • Mass transportation & communication • Electrification, refrigeration, synthesis of plastics & chemicals, ‘green revolution’ (industrial agriculture) 4 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 Lecture 9: Review Subject 1. Environmental Causes & Solutions 1. Factors that shape a societies ability to respond to environmental challenges and how we work with those factors to bring about positive change 2. Environmental Knowledge & Communication 1. How do we know what we know about the state of the world and the causes and solutions of environmental problems 6 Paradigms 1. Limits — Reduce — Materialism 1. Overpopulation 2. Carrying capacity 3. Climax ecosystem 4. Tragedy of the commons 2. Markets — Recalculate— Materialism 1. Carbon trading 2. Carbon markets 3. Green taxes 3. Institutions — Renegotiate — Structure & concepts 1. Stakeholders 2. Commons management 4. Political economy — Restructure —Structure & concepts 5. Social Construction— Idealism 6. Ethics — Idealism - 1950s • Growth of middle class 1 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 • Leisure society • Suburbia - Post war wealth - 1960s • Protesting military-industrial complex • Injustice Celebrating leisure • • Environmental deterioration - Post-Fordism & Neoliberal Globalization • Causes - Protest movements - 1973 oil crisis - Global debt crises • Effects - Restructuring of capitalism - Globalization of environmental problems & social risks - Struggle for control of dwindling resources - Restructuring of Capitalism • Commercialization of ‘style’ • IMF & world bank ‘structural adjustment’ policies • Flexible/borderless production & consumption, high-tech investment • Post-Cold War ‘globalization’ - Economic Globalization • Pros - Inevitable ‘progress’ - Increases competition & efficiency 2 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - Economic expansion • Cons - Increases inequality, global ‘race to the bottom’ - Undermines democracy - Key Concepts • The market response model Market failure • - Externalities • Affect of a transaction between two individuals and a third party who has to pay for it — ‘let somebody else deal with it’ - Transaction costs - Uneven power in price determination — monopoly - Limits on participation • Market based solutions - Green taxes - Cap & trade - Green consumption • Environmental scarcity drives markets • Coase Theorem: If property rights are clearly defines & people bargain costlessly, the externalities will be eliminated through free exchange - Assumptions: Clearly defined property rights + enforcement at no cost - Critiques of Market - Tradition economics - Environmental & Ecological Economics • Environmental - Green Taxes 3 Wednesday, February 24, 2016 - Tradable emission permits • Ecological - Ecological worldview - Environment provides raw materials, absorbs waste products - Biosphere is finite - a closed circle - 4