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In 55-60, find each sum. 2 + - + - + ... + 2 -5 25 5

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780132329033 | Authors: Michael Sullivan ISBN: 9780132329033 217

Solution for problem 13.3.60 Chapter 13

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition

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Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780132329033 | Authors: Michael Sullivan

Algebra and Trigonometry | 8th Edition

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Problem 13.3.60

In 55-60, find each sum. 2 + - + - + ... + 2 -5 25 5

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Tuesday, February 2, 2016 American Society Takes Shape Colonial Expansion - During the next 80 years, several other new colonies were founded which expanded the “American” colonies from the border of New France in the North to Florida in the South. • Pennsylvania 1681 • North Carolina 1663 • South Carolina 1670 • Georgia 1732 Population Explosion - After 1700, population in the colonies doubled every 25 years. • 250,000 in 1700 • 2.5 million in 1775 - Where did this increase come from • Internal (Healthy climate, abundance of foods) External (migration, either forced or of free will, from other ethnic areas) • Ethnic Groups in America - After initial migrations from England, other peoples began to migrate to Americas Germans migrated to Pennsylvania and the Carolinas in search of religious • freedom and increased economic opportunity • Scotch-Irish migrated to broad areas of America spurred by poor economic conditions in their home country, chance to own land in America and 200,000 migrated from 1715-1775 - Scotch-Irish doesn't mean they are Scottish, but the Scottish were protestant so they called themselves Scotch-Irish - Controversy over religion of protestants vs. catholics 1 Tuesday, February 2, 2016 • Africans forced migration as part of slave trade Africans and Colonial Society - Africans were the largest ethnic group to come to the English colonies during the 1700s even though for many it was a forced migration. Reasons for the rise in African population: • External - large number of laborers were needed for plantations • Internal - Natural increase (also a form of profit for slaveholders) If a slave is owned and they have a child, the child is now also owned by the same • owner Economic Expansion - During the colonial period, a healthy American economy depended on overseas trade. Major export products included: • Tobacco • Rice • Fish • Naval Stores - Although external trade was important, by the mid 1700’s trade had begun to occur between colonies as well - Subsistence farming - people who grow most of their food for survival • Farmer in 1700’s — Survives off of corn and also can market corn by making liquor, animal feed, and meal. Colonial Trade Structure - The Triangular Trade: • England to America: finished products, consumer goods such as cloth, metal goods, ceramics • Africa to the Caribbean or America: Slaves • America to Caribbean: Flour, meat, lumber • Caribbean to America: Sugar, molasses, slaves 2 Tuesday, February 2, 2016 • America to England: Rice, tobacco - The passage from Africa to the Caribbean, by which slaves traveled to America, was often called the Middle Passage. The Slave Trade - The Rise of plantation agriculture in the middle and southern colonies was based on an economic need for a product and a demand for labor produce the product. In 1660 the Company of Royal Adventurers gained exclusive right to traffic in slaves. Although the Company folded by 1667, it was replaced by the Royal African Company, who also ad the sole rights to the slave trade. In 1698 the slave trade was opened to competition, and the number of slaves being transported to America by English traders increased from 5000 per year to 20,000 per year. - The supply increases - Slaves were not the only option. Indentured servants had been utilized since Jamestown. People would serve 5-7 years in response to them paying you and your families way to America Shift from Indentured Servants to Slaves - Although before 1680 both indentured servants and slaves were used, these reason led plantation owners to prefer the use of slaves: • The inability of the owners to find a stable source of indentured laborers • Slaves served for life, while indentured servants served for 5-7 years • Colonial laws did not limit force which could be against slaves • The Children born to slaves were considered property, and natural increase was a source of profit to some slaveholders Nature of Plantation Life - Because Africans were acclimated to hot, humid climates, these peoples were favored as slaves in the southern US - African slaves, like the Europeans immigrants, came from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and social strata - Life on plantations required six days of work, with a break on Sundays. Slaves were often allowed to cultivate their own plots of land 3 Tuesday, February 2, 2016 - Native Americans were also used as slaves, but didn't understand English agriculture and did not do well in the climates - The Africans that were shipped to America were also diverse amongst themselves - There was a wide variety of ethnic heritage among them and was a source of debate among the African community because if you learned your ancestors were slaves you still may not be able to figure out which part of Africa you were from Urban Centers - Only 5% of Americans lived in Urban areas during the colonial period - Cities were compact - These centers provided a hub for information exchange and served as a middleman between the agricultural hinterlands and imported consumer goods. • New York: 21,000 in 1770 • Boston: 15,6000 in 1770 • Philadelphia: 22,000 in 1770 • Charleston: 11,000 in 1770 - These cities were the places where ideas circulated, where you get your news and info. These cities got info first and then it spread throughout the Americas Four Classes in Colonial Urban Areas - Affluent merchants, investors some clergymen, high ranking elected officials - Craftsmen, retailers, minor jobbers, innkeepers “Middling sort” - Free unskilled laborers, mariners, and artisans - Indentured servants, free blacks, slaves - Social mobility was possible for many of these people. Top tenth of the society controlled 40% of wealth 4 Tuesday, February 9, 2016 “A City on the Hill” Why is Religion Important - During the exploration and colonization of America, religion is an important motivator for European peoples - Missionaries and settlers come to America to christianize native peoples. (Spanish and french, but sometimes English) - Settle in America to avoid persecution or to practice religion freely. (Puritans, Quakers) John Winthrop - Named as Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 - His vision was of an america which was a commonwealth, where although peoples might be of unequal social status, each person help a sense of worth - “We shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people upon us.” The idea “a city upon the Hill,” although existing only in ideology, is an important concept which shapes fitter actions in relation to democracy and religion. Idea of model christian community based on good works. If the community follows the covenant, God will allow them to prosper and grow. If the community leaders fail to enforce God’s moral and proper laws, the entire community or nation could suffer. The Puritan Contradiction - Even though Puritans came to America to gain freedom from religious persecution, they saw no need to grant the freedom of free worship to others in their states. - Early Northern colonies, except Rhode Island, were forced to be Congregationalists (puritans). In 1660 Mary Dyer, who had converted to the Quaker religion, was hanged in Boston under a law which forbade Quakers to live in the colony. She had returned to the area to challenge the law. - Colonists were required to attend Church service - Enforces strict codes of moral conduct on a variety of issues: • Games of chance • Deviant Sexual behavior 1 Tuesday, February 9, 2016 • Drunkenness - To be considered a member of the church, must be baptized as a child, then have evidence of receiving Gods Grace. Puritan Impact on Education - Massachusetts Education Law of 1642 - required that parents and master see to it that their children knew the principles of religion and the capital laws of the Commonwealth - Satan Old Deluder Act, 1647 - required that towns of 50 families hire a schoolmaster who would teach children to read in write. Towns of 100 families just have a grammar schoolmaster who could prepare children to attend Harvard College - Harvard College - Founded in 1636 to train students in religion • 1638 only printing press in North America Religious Decline - By the 1660’s a decline in religious conversion occurred in New England. - Half way Covenant 1657 - Children of believers could become half-way members of church. Could not vote. Could not take Communion and could not vote in church matters - Lack of Religious conversion - Reversed by Great Awakening Major Colonial Religious Sects - Massachusetts • Puritans - Virginia Anglican Church - The strongest • • Baptists - Pennsylvania • Quakers 2 Tuesday, February 9, 2016 The Quakers - Quakers - Group based on the theory that no minister is needed, as one person’s interpretation of scripture is a valid as anyone else’s. Founded salvation through an “inner light.” - Name is actually a derogatory term used byEnglish authorities “tremble at the word of the lord” - Characterized by: • Pacifism • All people equal in the eyes of the Lord • Practiced humility and simplicity in dress and action - Quakers began coming to America in large numbers in the 1650’s. William Penn received a grant of land in Pennsylvania and many Quakers settled there after 1682 Religious Rituals - Attending Church was an important cultural ritual in colonial America, since no newspapers existed and most communication came from face to face conversation. - Seating patterns in churches were often by social standing, and sometimes segregated by sex. (Idea of Deference) The first Great Awakening - Religious revival which occurred in America from 1735-1760 - Based on the theory that individuals could attain salvation, through the recognition of their depraved natures and the need to surrender completely to God’s will. Focused on the conversion experience - George Whitefield (1714-1770) a charismatic methodist preacher,, was a major figure in the success of this movement - Other major evangelists included William Tennant(Presbyterian) and Jonathan Edwards - Taking the power from the Church and giving it to the individual 3 Tuesday, February 9, 2016 Results of the Great Awakening - Although many people found religion during the revival, many local clergymen began to discourage the movement because: • Disrupted normal patterns of Church • Sometimes splintered congregations, because the “new” salvation was more democratic that the traditional view of established religions • Eroded the colonial tradition of deference - Created a new sense of optimism about the future of America(Progress was possible with the help of God). - Idea of individual versus communal religion(individual should not be told by the overall community how to practice). New lights versus Old lights - Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian Churches gathered more followers while the Congregational, Anglican and Quaker Churches declined - The Children of the people at this time would be the leaders of the Community by 1775 and were highly influenced by the Awakening. Democratic Influence Shaped by Religion - The face of colonial America was greatly influenced by Religion. Religious groups, for example the Puritans and quakers, migrated to America to escape religious persecution, and formed new communities. Religion played an important role in these new communities, as it reinforced social status and in some cases served as the law of the land. By the mid 1700’s however, a Great Awakening rolled over the land, creating new structures of religion and society and inspiring a new optimism about the future of America, with the assistance of God. 4

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Chapter 13, Problem 13.3.60 is Solved
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Textbook: Algebra and Trigonometry
Edition: 8
Author: Michael Sullivan
ISBN: 9780132329033

This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 15 chapters, and 8585 solutions. Algebra and Trigonometry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780132329033. Since the solution to 13.3.60 from 13 chapter was answered, more than 238 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “In 55-60, find each sum. 2 + - + - + ... + 2 -5 25 5” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 17 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 13.3.60 from chapter: 13 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 01/04/18, 09:25PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Algebra and Trigonometry, edition: 8.

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In 55-60, find each sum. 2 + - + - + ... + 2 -5 25 5