Basketball. On April 4, 2004, the University of Connecticut Huskies nished the season the same way they started itas the number one mens basketball team in the NCAA. They defeated the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets 8273 in the Final Four championship game. The points came from three types of scoring plays: two-point shots, three-point shots, and one-point free throws. There were seven more two-point shots made than there were one-point free throws completed. The number of successful two-point shots was four more than four times the number of successful three-point shots. How many two-point, three-point, and one-point free throw shots were made in the nals of the 2004 Final Four NCAA tournament?
POLS 1020 week 15 Part I (week 14 had no class and midterm 3) Nuclear Proliferation First Nuclear Age: Avoiding Global Thermonuclear War Nuclear arms race, U.S and Soviet Union Nuclear weapons as weapons of warfare: o Catastrophic destructive power o No effective defense against nuclear attack o Theory of nuclear deterrence US – Soviet nuclear cooperation The First Nuclear War Aug. 6 – 9, 1945 o Nuclear war: in use of nuclear during the war. o Cuban Missile crisis 1964 October. o It’s a MAD world , how did the cold war didn’t turn into global thermonuclear war o Nuclear Deterrence Theory a. No nuclear defense b. Deterrence instead of defense c. Mutual assured destruction (MAD) d. First strike, second strike e. Your first strike (first attack), my second strike(retaliate back) f. The Triad (total three parts: first part: missile; second part: g. Safeguarding second strike capability The Nuclear Taboo The second Nuclear Age: Cleaning up after the first nuclear age Problems: o Too many nuclear bombs in world o Too much unsecured fissionable materials o Too many states that would like to get hold of a nuclear bomb o Too many terrorist groups that would like to get hold of a nuclear bomb Isiah: US – Soviet Nuclear Builddown What is nuclear proliferation o The spread of nuclear weapons from existing states to new states o 9 out 200 countries have nuclear weapons o NWS: o US 1945 o Soviet Union 1949 o Great Britain 1952 o France 1960 o China 1964 o NNWS: o India o Israel o Pakistan o North Korea 2006 Is proliferation is a bad thing o Nukes are so dangerous they could blow up the planet o So proliferation just makes global thermonuclear war more likely Or is it a good thing o Nukes are so dangerous they could blow up the planet o So proliferation scares bad states into being good Heart of matter o Do nuclear weapons threaten international peace and security If so, then proliferation increases the threat o Or do nuclear weapons enhance international and security If so. Then proliferation may not be such a big deal The bomb and the gun o It’s the same problem as having bombs and guns. More people have them, more dangerous; but in contrast, less people have them, safer we are. Why would a state want to go nuclear o Get biggest stick in the playground o Win an election o Deter an American invasion Why would they don’t o Very expensive o Creates security dilemma o Unnecessary How to go nuclear Let me count the ways. 1. Get help from a nuclear proliferator 2. Enrich uranium to bomb-grade level 3. Extract plutonium from a nuclear power reactor 4. Steal a bomb US tells South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, if other countries attack them, US will attack them back with Nuclear Bomb. But Donald Trump undermines that. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 1. NPT 1968 2. NWS – 5 Nuclear Weapons States 3. NNWS – Non-Nuclear Weapons States 4. Obligations of NWS to NNWS 5. Obligations of NNWS to NWS 6. IAEA – International Atomic Energy Agency NWS claims to help NNWS without letting them have Nuclear Weapons NPT creates a new organization IAEA to make sure no countries secretly building a bomb. o “Never Again” Israel and Nuclear Weapons o The Israeli obsession with security o Nukes and Israel’s existential problem o Israel and NPT o Israel and Arab states India and Pakistan Go Nuclear Together North Korea, very defensive. Stealing a bomb. Nuclear Terrorism Unlikely. Islamic Republic of Iran Proliferation case study: Iran Iran, the West and Nuclear Weapons o Long history of mutual mistrust, Iran and West o Iran insists on its right to enrich uranium But long history of Iran cheating on revealing its uranium enrichment programs West insists on Iran’s allowing IAEA inspectors in Several UN SC resolutions and sanctions against Iran o Decades of Fruitless negotiations o But diplomatic stars became aligned 2013 - present Uranium Enrichment: One path to a Nuclear bomb Iran Nuclear Negotiations: Who wants what o West wants to increase Iran’s “Breakout time” to at least one year o But Israel wants complete dismantling of Iran’s nuclear programs o Iran wants lifting of harsh economic sanctions The Iran Nuclear Deal o West gets concessions from Iran Limitation on centrifuges, enrichment levels Greatly heightened IAEA inspections Result: “breakout time” of at least one year Iran gets concessions from West o Lifting harsh economic sanctions Acknowledgement of Iran’s right to enrich uranium o Will the Deal hold o Will Iran try to cheat Yes, most certainly o Will IAEA inspectors catch the cheating Depends on final wording of deal Depends on US continual attention o Is US military strike still possible YES o Will deal increase stability in Middle East No, but will slow down the growth of instability o Is deal better than alternative/ Yes, avoids US military action For now The Nuclear Taboo Reconsidered o Nuclear war among the great powers is unlikely o Nuclear proliferation is more likely o Nuclear terrorism: so far so good.