Find the partial-fraction decomposition for each rational function.
Week Thirteen Anthropology Neanderthal Sustenance Con’t I. Gatherers A. Berries B. Nuts C. Vegetables II. Hunters A. At close range primarily 1. Used spears a) thrusting, NOT throwing B. Fauna (animal) fossil remains found in association with neanderthals 1. Mostly red dear C. Big brains (huge brains) require more calories 1. meat provides more calories Neanderthal Symbols and Beliefs I. Speech A. Evidence suggests yes: Morphology suggests speech 1. 2. Genes suggests speech (rules out genetic defect with FoxP2 gene) B. Spoke like us, but likely an octave higher or so II. Burial A. Burials found, could be one of three things: 1. deliberate burial a) Evidence at La chapelle site 1 of9 Week Thirteen 2. deliberate disposal a) Perhaps a population got stuck in a cave and one dies. They dig a hole and bury him just for disposal purposes only. 3. occasional offerings (rituals) a) There have been things found with the buried bodies: (1) tools (2) bones of animals (3) ﬂowers (a) pollen of ﬂowers b) This could suggest offerings B. There are a lot of oppositions to these hypotheses. Neanderthals and Art I. Locations: A. Cueva de los Aviones, Spain 1. Shells with holes ‘drilled’ out a) Possibly used as necklace b) Had red pigment (1) Horse bone was also found with this red pigment on the end B. This could be possible evidence for art, but it isn’t common among Neanderthals 2 o 9 Week Thirteen Modern Human Origins and The Upper Paleolithic Deﬁning Modern Humans: I. Skull A. Small Faces 1. As the brain gets bigger the face gets smaller B. Globular Vault 1. No bun or torus as found on other Homo’s C. Flexed Cranial Base D. High Forehead E. Canine Fossa 1. The bone on upper jaw is reduced 2. Can now see the outline of roots of the canine (and other teeth) through bone F. Distinct Chin 1. Only hominin with a chin 2. Not certain of the function of the chin II. Post Cranial Body A. Low Larynx and Pharynx 1. This allows for physical/verbal speech B. Reduced Body Mass 1. Slender-er bodies than neanderthals 2. Linear physique C. Pelvis 1. Short pubic ramus a) BUT large outlet 3 of9 Week Thirteen (1) women grow more bone to make large outlet (2) Neanderthals also grow bone, but differently (a) Suggests that Modern Human and Neanderthals have experienced convergence (development of structure, but differently (think wings of birds/bat/butterﬂies)) III.Dentition A. Small Molars and Premolars (Cheek Teeth) B. Smaller Jaws Early Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens I. Locations: A. Early Locations: 1. Omo Kibish, Ethiopia a) Around 195 - 130 kya 2. Skhul, Israel a) Around 100 - 90 kya 3. South Africa a) Around 115 - 90 kya b) At Border Cave and Klasies River Mouth B. Later Locations 1. Java, Asia a) Around 34 kya 2. Europe a) Around 40 - 30 kya 3. Australia a) 35 - 25 kya 4 o 9 Week Thirteen 4. North America a) 30+ kya Upper Paleolithic - Tools/Art/More Modern Brains I. 40 kya Paleolithic: II. Tools Lower: Achuelian tools used by A. Blade Technology: H. erectus 1. tool is now longer than it is wide Middle: Levallois tools and Mousterian Core tools used by H. 2. thin heidelbergensis and H. 3. More effective neanderthalensis Upper: Blade tools used by H. III. sapien IV. Where Do We Come From I. There are two main theories: A. Out of Africa Model 1. Stringer and Andrews a) In 1988 2. Modern Homo sapiens evolved in Africa, ONLY in Africa They then left Africa and replaced the other Hominids in the world 3. a) Homo heidelbergensis b) Homo neanderthalensis c) Homo erectus/ergaster 5 o 9 Week Thirteen B. Multi-regional- Continuity Model 1. Thorne and Wolpoff 2. ALL Hominids from the Pleistocene to present are represented in a single evolving lineage. a) There would have been gene ﬂow between the different Homo species 3. Modern Homo sapien, then, evolved over entire range II. Sources of Evidence: A. Three kinds of evidence: NOTE each kind of evidence can be used to support both models. 1. Morphology a) Mulitregional (1) Focuses on the similarities of archaic forms of Homo and modern Homo in certain locations. In other words, the focus is on regional differences (a) (b) Example: Modern Humans in Asia share similarities to the Homo erectus in Asia b) Out of Africa (1) Focused not on similarities of archaic Homo and modern Homo, but on similarities between speciﬁc species (all Homo Sapiens, for example or all Homo neanderthalensis) and differences between entire species (2) Earliest Modern H. sapien localities are from Africa. (a) Later found in other areas and regions. 2. Molecular a) Mitochondrial DNA: (1) Out of Africa: (a) Discovery in late 80’s - early 90’s (b) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 6 of9 Week Thirteen i) mtDNA is ONLY inherited by mother ii) It is an exact replica (1) Allows it to be presented as phylogeny rather than tokogeny iii) It mutates faster than Nuclear DNA (1) The more similar the mtDNA between two, the more recent the ancestor they share (2) These mutations also allow us to calculate divergence times (c) Mitochondrial ‘Eve’ i) Cann, Skoting, and Wilson discovered in 1987 (1) ii) Suggests that all humans come from a single population (1) A group from 290,000 - 140,000 years ago iii) Suggests higher genetic diversity in Africa (1) This is because humans originate there (2) Humans spread out from Africa about 100,000 years ago iv) Suggests no evidence of humans admixing with archaic groups b) Archaic DNA: (1) Drings et al. (a) Discovery made in 1997 (b) They compared mtDNA from living humans AND neanderthals (c) Estimated the Divergence Date somewhere greater than 400,000 years ago. (2) Caramelli el al. (a) Discovery made in 2003 (3) Templeton (a) Discovery made in 2002 7 of9 Week Thirteen i) Regarding Multiregional 3. Archeological a) The early modern H. sapiens lived very much like the archaic forms of Homo b) The modern tool kit (the blade technology) took form (1) 40-50 kya (a) this is upper paleolithic tools (2) Archaic forms declined after these tools arrived (a) This does not coincide with date proposed for H. sapien to replace other forms of Homo c) Locations: (1) Gademotta, Ethiopia (a) Tools found from Upper Paleolithic i) about 276,000 years old (1) This is older than what people thought regarding the ﬁrst uses of Upper Paleolithic tools (2) It is the same time as ﬁrst modern H. sapiens d) e) B. III. New Data (from April 2016) A. Discovery on Neanderthal Y DNA (Y chromosome) 1. Modern Homo sapien males are lacking Neanderthal Y genes a) This could be caused by a few different things: (1) Genetic Drift (2) Reproductive incompatibility 8 o 9 Week Thirteen (a) Has been suggested that males born to a Neanderthal and H. sapien would either not be able to survive or not be able to reproduce. Therefore, the Neanderthal Y gene would not be passed down. b) sas 2. as B. Neanderthal Modern Divergence Dates 1. mtDNA was approximately 400,000 - 800,000 years ago 2. Y DNA was approximately 550,000 years ago IV. Asian DNA A. In southern Siberia a ﬁnger and a tooth have been discovered. 1. They have put this into a new species: Denisovans a) Denisovans are related to Neanderthals Suggested they diverged from neanderthals after H. sapiens diverged. (1) 9 o 9