Determine the time that temperature measuring devices (such as a thermocouple) will reach 98% of their final value when exposed to a step change in temperature if they have time constants of 0.1,1, and 10 s.
Physical Geography midterm study guide Three main subfields of geography 1) Physical Geography 2) Human Geography 3) Geospatial/cartography Four subsystems 1) Atmosphere: gaseous shell. (this class’ focus is on the troposphere) 2) Lithosphere: solid Earth, ground, rock and minerals. 3) Hydrosphere: water in all forms 4) Biosphere: all life on Earth Atmosphere thickness – thicker at the Equator; thinner at the poles Four local and regional factors that influence vegetation 1) Slope 2) Attitude 3) Proximity to a water source 4) Intensity of winds Height of ground stations that measure temperature 5 feet. Temporal lag: Difference in time between two events, between insolation and peak temperature occurs. Direct solar energy is received from inputs –energy is stored in terrestrial surface and omits radiation, between as output Cyclogenesis: formation of mid latitude cyclones. Associated with polar jet stream in the upper atmosphere. Convergence: accumulation of air in a region that has a greater inflow than outflow of air. Often giving rise to vertical air currents. Intertropical convergence zone: band of low pressure, calm winds, clouds in tropical latitudes where air converges from southern and northern Hemisphere. It lags. Igneous rock: rocks that form when magma rises from the mantle and cools. Extrusive: form when magma cools on the surface Intrusive: form when magma cools within the Earth’s crust Rocks vs. Minerals: Rock is an amorphous mass of consolidated mineral matter. Minerals are naturally occurring substances with distinctive chemical configurations. Relative humidity: the ration between specific and maximum humidity in air. (Specific / Max) x 100 The more the air expands, the greater the capacity to hold water Dew Point: temperature at which condensation occurs in a definable body of air. Types of Clouds: 1) Cirrus – ice crystals for thin and wispy clouds high up 2) Cumulus – puffy clouds resulting from convection 3) Stratus – layered and thick and dark clouds Orographic uplift: occurs when air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain. 4 Stages of Thunderstorms 1) Cumulus stage 2) Mature Stage 3) Dissipating Stage 4) Anvil Head Ocean Crust: Basaltic part of Earth’s crust. Makes up Ocean basins. About 5 miles thick. Continental crust: Granitic part of Earth’s crust. About 25 miles thick. Characteristics of the inner core: solid and primarily made up of iron and nickel. Outer core: extensive. Dynamic liquid iron. Less pressure. Generates 90% of Earth’s magnetic field. Types of Sedimentary rock Conglomerate Sandstone Limestone Forest biomes: vegetation dominated by trees. Occur from tropical regions to the high mid latitudes and can be categorized as the tropical forest biomes, midlatitude forest biomes and boreal forest biome. ADRET slope: faces the sun. Drier and fewer trees UBACK slope: faces away from the sun. Less energy. More snow and soil moisture. Vertical zonation: change in environmental characteristics that occurs with respect to altitude. 4 Types of Proxy Data 1) Pollen records 2) Tree Ring patterns 3) Ice corn anaylsis Autotrophs: organisms that synthesize their own food using heat or light as source of energy Heterotrophs: organisms that consume complex organic substances for food Dendrochronology: dating of past events and variations of the environment and climate by studying the annual growth rates of trees. Occluded front: area where a cold front begins to overtake a warm front thus lifting warm air aloft.