In I'mblem 11.29, if the uncertainty ;. me"urement of the "anaducer compliance is 25%, calcuIate the uncertainty m the calcuIation of the naturaI frequency_ Other patameters ;. the "'Illation for calrulating oatural frequency of the mea_t 'Y'tem can be determined with much higher accuracy.
Chapter 12 Notes: Social Psychology Week April 3 April 10 A. Social psychology: the study of how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. 12.1 How Does Group Membership Affect People Humans have an overriding motivation to fit with the group. Interpersonal attachments motive have evolved for adaptive purposes. A. Social brain hypothesis (Dunbar) Large prefrontal cortexes because of the high dynamic and complex social groups. I. People Favor Their Own Groups A. Formation ofingroup (belong groups) anutgroups o not belong groups) B Security from predators and assistance in hunting and gathering food. C. Better Mating opportunities i. Two conditions appear to be critical for group formation: a. Reciprocity: “If you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours” i. Reciprocity means that if Person A helps (or harms) Person B, then Person B will help (or harm) Person A. b. Transitivity “People generally share their friend’s opinions of other people” B. Outgroup homogeneity effect: the tendency to view outgroup members as less varied than ingroup members. C. Social identity the the idea that in groups consist of individuals who perceive themselves to be members of the same social category and experience pride through their group membership. D. Ingroup favoritism the tendency for people to evaluate favorably and privilege members of the ingroup more than members of the outgroup.People are more willing to do favors for ingroup members or to forgive their mistakes or errors. The power of group membership is so strong that people exhibit ingroup favoritism even if the groups are determarbitrary processes. a. Minimal group paradigm: The basis of group membership occurred even when the participants were told that the basis of group membership was arbitrary. b. Women show a much greater automatic ingroup bias toward other women than men do toward other women. E. Various brain regions (including the fusiform face area, the nucleus accumbens, the insula, and the amygdala) are differentially active when we consider ingroup versus outgroup members. F. The medial prefrontal cortex is less active when people are members of outgroups. II. Groups Influence Individual Behavior A. Social facilitation: the presence of others enhances performance. Occurs in other animals i. Zajonc’s model: Animals are predisposed to become aroused by the presence of others of their own species. Arousal leads animals to emit a dominant response. This model predicts that social facilitation can either enhance or impair performance. The change depends on whether the response that is required in a situation is the individual’s dominant response. I.e. Crowds do not distract professional players while they will distract amatuer players due to pressure. B. Deindividuation: reduced attention to personal standards when part of a group i. Stanford prison study: This experiment demonstrate what people are willing to do when put in a situation with defined social roles. C. Group decision making: RiskyShift Effect :Groups often make riskier decision than individuals do. i.group polarization : the process by which initial attitudes of groups become more extreme over time. ii.groupthink: the tendency of groups to make bad decisions when the group is under pressure, facing external threats, and is biased D. Social loafing: the tendency to work less hard in a group than when alone. Occurs when people’s efforts are pooled so that individuals do not feel personally responsible for the group’s output. III. People Conform to Others A. Conformity: altering one’s beliefs/behaviors to match those of other people B. Influence: i. Normative influence occurs when people go along with the crowd to fit in with the group and to avoid looking foolish ii.nformational influence occurs when people assume that the behavior of the crowd represents the correct way to respond. Autokinetic Effect: Power of conformity in social judgement. C. Social norms: expected standards of conduct influence behavior D. The Asch and Sherif studies. i. groups enforce conformity, and those who fail to go along can be rejected. Ii People tend to conform to social norms, even when those norms are obviously Wrong. iii.) When do people reject social norms Group Size too Small Lack of unanimity (Any dissent from majority opinion can diminish the influence of social norms. Anxiety of social exclusion (actually appeared as a signal in the amygdala IV. People Are Often Compliant A. Compliance: the tendency to do things requested by others: i. footinthedoor effect: Once people commit to a course of action, they behave in ways consistent with that commitment. ii. door in the face People are more likely to agree to a small request after they have refused a large request. iii. lowballing strategy Once a person has committed to an option, then deciding to do so by spending a bit more money does not seem like such a big decision. V. People Are Obedient to Authority A. Milgram’s famous study demonstrated the tendency to follow the directions of authority. (Experimentee was a teacher administering shocks to conduct a test) Some situations produced less obedience i. Nearly twothirds completely obeyed all the experimenter’s directives. 12.2 When Do People Harm or Help Others VI. Many Factors Can Influence Aggression A. Aggression: any behavior that involves the intention to harm another. Another factor that influences aggression is heat. B. Biological factors: i. Genetic research has identified the role of the MAOA gene in aggression: a. MAOA is not a “violence gene.” b. associated with amygdala and neurotransmitters(serotonin) C. MAOA gene controls the amount of MAO, an enzyme that regulates the activity of a number of neurotransmitters, including serotonin and norepinephrine. ii. The hormone testosterone also appears to have a modest correlation with aggression. However a particular form of the gene appears to make individuals susceptible to environmental risk factors associated with antisocial behaviors. iii ) The prefrontal cortex is important for controlling emotional and behavioral reactions. C. Social and cultural factors. i. culture of honor: Men are primed to protect their reputations through physical aggression. VII. Many Factors Can Influence Helping Behavior A. Prosocial: actions that tend to benefit others, such as doing favors or helping By providing benefits to others, prosocial behaviors promote positive interpersonal relationships. B. Altruistic behavior: providing help when it is needed, without any apparent reward for doing so: Natural selection occurs at the genetic level rather than at the individual level. Inclusive Fitness (Hamilton’s): The adaptive benefits of transmitting genes rather than focusing on individual survival. People are altruistic toward those with whom they share genes, also known as kin selection. i. kin selection ii. reciprocal helping: Robert Rivers: One animal helps another because the other may return the favor in the future. VIII. Some Situations Lead to Bystander Apathy A. Bystander intervention effect: failure to offer help to someone in need if other bystanders are around. i. diffusion of responsibility : Bystanders expect other bystanders to help. Thus the greater the number of people who witness someone in need of help, the less likely it is that any of them will step forward. ii. social blunders: People feel less constrained from seeking help as the need for help becomes clearer. iii. wish to be anonymous people are less likely to help when they are anonymous and can remain so. iv. How much harm do they risk to themselves by helping v. Kitty Genovese 38 witnesses and still none of them could do anything to stop the murder. IX. Cooperation Can Reduce Outgroup Bias A. Sherif's Robbers Cave experiment: Among strangers, competition and isolation created enemies Among enemies, cooperation created friends. B. Shared superordinate goals — goals that require people to cooperate — reduce hostility between groups. C. Jigsaw classroom i. Children in jigsaw classrooms grow to like each other more and develop higher selfesteem than do children in traditional classrooms. Dependent on one another to achieve a task as a group. Each person is specialized in one thing. 12.3 How Do Attitudes Guide Behavior A. Attitudes are evaluations of: i. objects. ii. events. iii. Ideas. And are shaped by social context and play an important role in how we evaluate and interact with people. X. People Form Attitudes through Experience and Socialization A. Negative attitudes develop more rapidly than positive attitudes. In general, bad is always a stronger motivating force than good. B. Mere exposure effe ct greater exposure leads to familiarity and therefore more positive attitudes. Ex: When people are presented with normal photographs of themselves and the same images reversed, they tend to prefer the reversed version because the reversed versions correspond to what people see when they look in the mirror. XI. Behaviors Are Consistent with Strong Attitudes In general, the stronger and more personally relevant the attitude, the more likely it is to predict behavior. The strong and personally relevant nature of the attitude will lead the person to act the same across situations related to that attitude. The more specific the attitude, the more predictive it is. ATTITUDE ACCESSIBILITY: The ease or difficulty that a person has in retrieving an attitude from memory. A. Ease of attitude accessibility predicts behavior resistant to change. XII. Attitudes Can Be Explicit or Implicit A. Explicit attitudes: because we know we hold them, we can report them to other people. B. Implicit attitudes: at an unconscious level, they influence feelings and behavior. These influence feelings and behaviors because people can access these implicit attitudes from memory quickly with little conscious effort or control. In a way, implicit attitudes function like implicit memories. XIII. Discrepancies Lead to Dissonance A. Cognitive dissonance: Dissonance is a lack of agreement, occurs when there is a contradiction between two attitudes or between an attitude and a behavior. i. an uncomfortable mental state ii. due to contradiction between two attitudes or between behavior and attitude iii. insufficient justificatioOne way to get people to change their attitudes is to change their behaviors first, using as few incentives as possible. iv. postdecisional dissonance: Dissonance can arise when a person holds positive attitudes about different options but has to choose one of the options. For example, a person might have trouble deciding which of many excellent colleges to attend. Post decisional dissonance then motivates to focus on one school’s the chosen school’s positive aspects and the other school’s negative aspects. v. justifying effort:When people put themselves through pain, embarrassment, or discomfort to join a group, they experience a great deal of dissonance. After all, they would typically not choose to be in pain, embarrassed, or uncomfortable. People dissolve dissonance by inflating the importance of the group and their commitment to it. “They have sacrificed so much to join a group, people believe the group must be extraordinarily important. XIV. Attitudes Can Be Changed Through Persuasion A. Persuasion is active and conscious effort to change attitude through transmission of message. Persuasion is most likely to occur when people pay attention to a message, understand it, and find it convincing. Most importantly, the message must be memorable. Strong arguments that appeal to emotions are the most persuasive. Advertisers also use the mere exposure effect, repeating the message over and over in the hope that multiple exposures will lead to increased persuasiveness. B. According to the elaboration likelihood model, persuasive communication changes attitudes through a: i. central routeWhen people are motivated to process information and are able to take that information. People are paying attention to the arguments, considering all the information, and using rational cognitive processes. Leads to strong attitudes that last over time. ii. peripheral route: minimal attention to information leads to impulsivity. When people are either not motivated to process information or are unable to process it. This route leads to moreimpulsive action, as when a person decides to purchase a product because of endorsement 12.4 How Do People Think About Others XV. Physical Appearance Affects First Impressions First thing to notice is typically the face of a person during an initial interaction A. Nonverbal behavior, otherwise referred to asbody language , ithe facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, and movements by which one communicates with others: Thin slices of behaviorPeople can make accurate judgements based on only a few seconds of observation. Thin slices of behavior are powerful cues for impression formation. i. Accurate judgments can be based on brief observations. ii. Facial expressions and body movements influence impressions. XVI. People Make Attributions About Others A. Attributions: people’s explanations for why events or actions occur They are explanations for events or actions, including other people’s behaviors. People are motivated to draw inferences in part by a basic need for both order and predictability. B. Personal attributions: xplanations of people’s behavior that refer to their internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, or efforts These explanations refer to things within people, such as abilities, mood, or efforts. For example, you might assume that a firefighter saved the kitten because he is brave. C. Situational attributions explanations of people’s behavior that refer to external events, such as the weather, luck, accidents, or other people’s actions Fritz Heider and Harold Kelley has described people as intuitive scientists who try to draw inferences about others and make attributions about events. But unlike objective scientists, people tend to be systematically biased when they process social information. When explaining other people’s behavior, people tend to overemphasize the importance of personality traits and underestimate the expectancy that people’s actions correspond with their belief and personalities. These explanations refer to outside events, such as luck, accident or the actions of other people. D. In explaining behavior, undamental attribution error is the tendency to: i. overemphasize personality. ii. underestimate situation. E. Actor/observer discrepancy: i. In interpreting our own behavior, we focus on situation. ii. In interpreting others’ behavior, we focus on personality. Example: People tend to attribute their own lateness to external factors such as traffic. While they tend to attribute other’s lateness to personal characteristics such as laziness or lack of organization. XVII. Stereotypes Are Based on Automatic Categorization A. Stereotypes: mental shortcuts for rapid processing of social information B. As a result of directed attention and memory biases, people may see illusory correlations. Stereotypes guide attention toward information that confirms the stereotypes and away from disconfirming evidence. *Moreover when people encounter someone who does not fit a stereotype, they put that person in a special category rather than alter the stereotype. This latter process is known as subtyping. XVIII. Stereotypes Can Lead to Prejudice A. Prejudice : negative feelings, opinions, and beliefs associated with a stereotype B. Discrimination: inappropriate, unjustified treatment of people based on prejudice C. Ingroup/outgroup bias is the tendency to: i. positively evaluate groups we belong to. ii. negatively evaluate groups different from ours D. Modern racism: Subtle forms of prejudice that coexist with the rejection of racist beliefs . Modern racists tend to believe that discrimination is no longer a serious problems and that minority groups are demanding too much societal change as in too many changes to traditional values. Ex: People may condemn racist attitudes toward Latinos but be unwilling to help a Latino in need. XIX. Prejudice Can Be Reduced A. Inhibiting stereotypes. i. In everyday life, inhibiting stereotyped thinking is difficult and requires selfcontrol. B. Perspective taking and perspective giving: i . Perspective taking involves people actively contemplating the psychological experiences of other people. Such contemplation can reduce racial bias and help to smooth potentially awkward interracial interactions. Taking another group’s perspective appears to reduce negative or positive stereotypes. ii. Perspective giving, in which people share their experiences of being targets of discrimination. 12.5 What Determines the Quality of Relationships A. Relationships are connections with friends and with romantic partners. XX. Situational and Personal Factors Influence Interpersonal Attraction and Friendships A. Relationships are promoted by: i. proximity and familiarity. a. The more people come into contact, the more likely they are to become friends. The more often people come into contact with each other because they are physically nearby, they more likely they are to become friends. ii Similarity or “Birds of a Feather” matching principle and personal characteristics a. People tend especially to like those who have admirable personality characteristics and who are physically attractive. iv. physical attractiveness. a. How people rate attractiveness is generally consistent across all cultures. B. “What is beautiful is good” stereotype; the belief that attractive people are superior in most ways Some standards of beauty, such as preferences for particular body types, appear to change over time and across cultures. Nevertheless, how people rate attractiveness is generally consistent across all cultures XXI. Love Is an Important Component of Romantic Relationships A. Passionate love: intense longing and sexual desire i. generally happens early in relationships B. Companionate love: strong commitment to caring for and supporting partner i. evolves in relationships C. Love in relationships may be related to early attachment styles from childhood days. (How their parents treated them and their attachment behavior) People whose parents treated them inconsistently—sometimes warm and sometimes not—have ambivalent attachments. These people are best described as clingy. They worry that people do not really love them and are bound to leave them. About 11 percent of adults report having this attachment style. XXII. Staying in Love Can Require Work If people do not develop companionate forms of satisfaction in their romantic relationships—such as friendship, social support, and intimacy—the loss of passion leads to dissatisfaction and often to the eventual dissolution of the relationship A. Dealing with conflict: i. being overly critical ii. holding the partner in contempt (i.e., having disdain, lacking respect) iii. being defensive iv. mentally withdrawing from the relationship, arguing by only seeing things from one side of the relationship. B. Happy couples also differ from unhappy couples in attributional style. Attribution Style: how one partner explains the other’s behavior. i. They overlook bad behavior or respond constructively, a process called accommodation. Also, optimistic people typically have a happier relationship than those who are not. C. Can psychology rekindle a romance The following will help: i. Show interest in your partner. ii. Be affectionate. iii. Show you care. iv. Spend quality time together. v. Maintain loyalty and fidelity. vi. Learn how to handle conflict.