Let A1, A2, A3, ... be a sequence of events of a sample space. Prove that P *+ n=1 An , . n=1 P (An). This is called Booles inequality.
Geology 101 Notes April 7 th Energy and Mineral Resources Sources of energy Oil and natural gas formation and extraction Coal formation energy sources Ores and minerals Where does energy come from Sun o Solar energy o Plant matter o Fossil fuel o Wind Gravity o Tides o Falling water Chemical Reactions Nuclear Fission Geothermal – happens in the center of the Earth Oil and Natural Gas Hydrocarbon compounds Remains of marine algae and plankton 90 oil shale o black organic shale 160 oil and natural gas 250 natural gas Oil window is from 90 – 160 degrees Celsius Oil and Natural Gas Trap Source rock organic rich shale Reservoir rock: high porosity and permeability o Sponge o Porosity bunch of holes o Permeability holes next to each other Seal Rock Where is oil found Anticline Fault Salt dome Stratigraphic Finding Oil and Natural Gas Generate seismic waves Look for folds Extracting Oil and Natural Gas Drilling o Puncture the seal rock Pumping o Brings oil to the surface Refining Oil Crude oil is distilled Process depends on grade o Sulfur content o Specific gravity Products made from a barrel of crude oil Diesel 12 Jet fuel 4 Other product 7 Gasoline 19 Petroleum gas 2 Other types of Formations/ extractions Tar Sands o Viscous oil in sand o Cannot pump Mined then heated Heated then pumped o Very expensive Oil Shale o Has not reached oil window o Mined then heated o Very expensive Fracking o Hydraulic fracturing Extracting natural gas o Increases well production o Drawbacks Groundwater contamination Land use issues Running out of oil Other sources exist o Liquefied coal o Oil shale o Tar sands o Methane hydrate Not economically viable at current prices and technology When will we run out of oil Geologist o Soon Economists o Will stop using it first Coal Plant material buried o Low oxygen o Water squeezed out o 50 % C= Peat o 70 % C= coal Coal Production Coal not made all the time Plenty of coal for now Coal Extraction Strip mining o Coal < 100 m Underground mining o Coal > 100m o Very dangerous Drawbacks of Fossil Fuels Air pollution o Particles and gases o Acid rain Carbon dioxide o Greenhouse gas Byproducts o Mine runoff Spills o Groundwater o Ocean Fatalities in mines o A lot Alternate Energy Sources 90% of world energy needs from non renewable fossil fuels Possible alternate energy sources o We cover 5 Nuclear Power Energy release when nucleus is split (fission) Drawback o Controlling nuclear reactions Lot of work and planning Potential meltdown o Nuclear waste Damaging to living organisms Long time decay (decades centuries) Wind Must have steady breeze Clean Drawbacks o Noisy o Ugly o Hazard to wildlife Solar Sunlight converted to electricity Clean Drawbacks o Not efficient o Not cost effective Hydroelectric Two kinds o River No pollutants Drawbacks Dams o Tidal No pollutants Drawback Construction Geothermal Use Earths eternal heat where it comes near surface Use in two ways o Water o Steam to turn turbines Drawbacks o Conditions limited