Consider Example A of Section 11.3.1 using a Bayesian model. As in the example, use a normal model for the differences and also use an improper prior for the expected difference and the precision (as in the case of unknown mean and variance in Section 8.6). Find the posterior probability that the expected difference is positive. Find a 90% posterior credibility interval for the expected difference.
Exam 1 Study Guide (Through 1/20/16) This study guide covers information presented in class through 1/20/16. The study guide will be updated in the days to come, as more information is presented in lecture. This guide is not intended to be exhaustive. There may be questions on the test that are not covered in this guide. Additionally, it is likely that topics covered in this study guide will not be presented on the test. Topics to Study: Psychology’s Intellectual roots Early Schools (Structuralism & Functionalism) Psychology as a Science - Levels of analysis - Goals of psychology - Basic v. applied research Perspectives on Behavior (Key people, methods origins, and beliefs). How can these perspectives be integrated to explain behavior - Psychodynamic Perspective - Behavioral Perspective - Humanistic Perspective - Cognitive Perspective - Sociocultural Perspective - Biological Perspective Methods in Psychology Ethics - 5 General Principles of the APA Code of Ethics: 1. Beneficience and Non-Malfeasance 2. Fidelity and Responsibility 3. Integrity 4. Justice 5. Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity - How do these ethical principles apply to : o Baby Albert o Nuremberg Trials o Tuskegee “Bad Blood” Studies Empiricism v. Dogmatism Scientific Method 1. Theories – What makes a good theory 2. Hypotheses – What is an operational definition 3. Hypothesis Testing - Descriptive Research - Survey Research - Correlational Designs/ Interpreting Correlational Data - Experimental Design - What makes a study an experiment 4. Analyze and report findings 5. Reevaluate and refine original hypothesis Pitfalls of Experimental Design Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Neuroscience and Behavior Nervous system Divisions and Functions - Central Nervous System - Peripheral Nervous System - Sympathetic v. Parasympathetic o What are the reactions of each system Neurons - Anatomy of a Neuron. Know the Function and location of: o Cell Body o Dendrites o Axon o Myelin Sheath o Synapse - Functions of the 3 types of neurons (Sensory, Motor, and Interneurons) Glial Cell Functions Action Potentials - Process o Resting potential o Depolarization o Absolute Refractory Period - All-or-None Law Neurotransmitters - Major Neurotransmitters – Excitatory or inhibitory What disorders/diseases are they associated with What processes are they involved in o Acetylcholine (Ach) o Dopamine o GABA o Glutamate o Norepinephrine (NE) o Serotonin o Endorphins - Drug Interactions - Agonists v. Antagonists Brain Imaging Methods Structures and Functions of the Brain - Hindbrain o Brain Stem o Pons o Medulla o Cerebellum - Midbrain o Reticular Formation - Forebrain o Cerebrum o Thalamus o Hypothalamus o Limbic System (Hippocampus and Amygdala) o Cerebral Cortex o Fissures - Occipital Lobe - Temporal Lobe - Parietal Lobe - Frontal Lobe Studying the Damaged brain - Aphasia o Wernicke’s Aphasia o Broca’s Aphasia - Frontal Lobe Damage o Phineas Gage - Split Brain Procedures o Corpus Callosum Lateralization Sensation and Perception Sensation v. Perception Transduction Stimulus Detection - Absolute Threshold - Decision Criterion & Signal Detection Theory - Difference Threshold & Weber’s Law Sensory Adaptation Cross-Modal Processing The Visual System Sensation Light Visible spectrum Brightness and hue – How do these relate to frequency and amplitude of a wave Structures of the human eye and their functions o Pupil o Iris o Cornea o Lens o Retina o Fovea o Ganglion Cells o Optic Nerve o Blind Spot o Sclera Significance of the Shape of the Eye (farsightedness v. nearsightedness) Characteristics of photoreceptors o Rods o Cones What are photopigments Theories of Color Vision – Which is the most accurate o Trichromatic o Opponent-Process o Dual-Process Color Deficient Vision o Trichromats, Dichromats, and Monochromats o Why is color blindness more common in men The Visual Pathway o Optic Nerve o Optic Chiasm o Thalamus o Primary Visual Cortex Simple v. Complex Feature Detector Cells Perception Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing Attention – Characteristics influencing attention and “Inattentional Blindness” Gestalt Organizational Principles Perceptual Schemas, Sets, and Constancies Depth and Movement Cues Illusions Perceptual Development o Critical periods o Cultural influences