An experiment was done to test a method for reducing faults on telephone lines (Welch 1987). Fourteen matched pairs of areas were used. The following table shows the fault rates for the control areas and for the test areas: a. Plot the differences versus the control rate and summarize what you see. b. Calculate the mean difference, its standard deviation, and a confidence interval. c. Calculate the median difference and a confidence interval and compare to the previous result. d. Do you think it is more appropriate to use a t test or a nonparametric method to test whether the apparent difference between test and control could be due to chance? Why? Carry out both tests and compare.
JAPN 315 Study guide for Midterm #2 Please review the following topics (this is not an exhaustive list; this is just to give you an idea to see what sort of things you should study for the exam.) Good luck! Answers will be in this color. Additional information will be in this color. 1) What are the characteristics of Hakuho culture Developed from Taika Reformation (645) to 710. Heavily influenced from China, Korea, & India. It was the time Yakushiji was built in Nara (now classified in UNESCO World treasure). Literature arose during this time; Kojiki/Nihon shoki (mythology, history, titles of emperors from 1 to 33 written in Chinese), Fudoki (Geographic information written in Chinese), & Manyooshi (known as collection of 10000 leaves, oldest collection of poetry written in Japanese using Manyoogana). 2) What is the name of new capital in Nara Heijo kyo (now it’s just nothing but a monument stating the capital used to be there). Roads were planned perpendicular, capital was based on Chinese capital Choan, 708 Genmei Tenno announce ‘sento’ and empress coined currency called Wado kaiho/kaichin. 3) What types of temples did Shomu tenno built What are the differences What is Todaiji famous for Shomu tenno 729749 etablished kokubanji, kokubun’niji, and Todaiji (they are all Buddhist temples thus we can speculate he was heavily influenced in Buddhism) 4) Who is genjo What is saiyuki Who are supposed to be the guardians for sanzo hoshi in saiyuki According to the Nanto Rokushu (southern 6 Buddhism sects), under Hossoshu, in 638 Genjo (also known as Sanzo hoshi) was a traveler who returned to China from India (Tenjiku). Saiyuki is based off Chinese classic literature about the journey to the west. The journey (Saiyuki) he claimed to have gone through also stated he was accompanied by 3 creatures/guardians: Son Goku (monkey), Cho Hakkai (pig), Sa Gojo (duck like monster). Also accompanied by a white horse Gyokuryu. 5) What is Shosoin Where are the artifacts/treasures from What is the trading road between China and Europe called Azekura zukuri styled warehouse (triangular log architecture). Classified under UNESCO’s World Heritage, since it contains untouched treasures from the Silk Road (brought to Japan via Ken To Shi) 6) What sorts of amendments were made to the farmland distribution in the Nara period In 722, the Imperial Court declared they needed 3 million acres of new farmland. By 723 th Gensho Tenno (44 ) established sanze isshinno ho system in which : you cultivate your own farmland, Can keep it for up to 3 generations, no princes, nobles, gentry, nor monasteries were allowed to cultivate new farmlands. By 743 Shomu Tenno established Konden einen sizaiho; whereas there are no restrictions (which still left as a disadvantage to the nobles) cultivate the land that is now forever yours (which did not help the poor farmers whatsoever). 7) Where was the capital during the Heian Period What was the structure of capital like Was the right side of the capital the same as the left In 794, Kanmu Tenno moved the capital (sento) to Heiankyo (modern day Kyoto). Capital structure was Jobosei (chessboard like structure) borrowed from China. The emperor’s right side (left) called Ukyo had a large river called Katsura gawa, the neighboring houses around it were not developed until in the 10 century when most became farmlands. The emperor’s left side (right) Sakyo was where nobles housed Kamu gawa except northern edge of Ukyo. The poor lived in the area beyond Kamu gawa, temples and second houses were around the east bank of Kamu gawa. As time passes, civilians built houses outside the main capital because of the rough neighborhood (crime) in Ukyo and the expensive landmarks in Sakyo (as well as the vacation homes nobles cannot obtain). So the capital technically expanded. 8) What is Sekkan seiji Who started it Which emperor’s period was it What is sessho What is kanpaku Which family was selected to be Sessho and Kanpaku Who was the most successful one from the family (the arrogant one!) The political structure during this time period ranges from high rank to low rank position; Sessho: emergency office (supports emperor) Kanpaku: regular officer (supports emperor) Jingikan: religious Dajokan: nonreligious, chair (Daijo daijin) Sekkan seiji is an establishment to which the Furigawa family occupied sessho or kanpaku position. Started during Seiwa Tenno (56 & became emperor at the age of 9!) Fujiwara Yoshifusa was his maternal uncle (perhaps pulled the strings).Fujiwarano th Michinaga became the Sessho for Goichijo Tenno (68 ). Fujiwarano had 3 of his daughters become the emperors’ wives including Chugu Shoshi (the person who Murasaki Shikibu served). Built Byodoin Hoo Do, The Phoenix Palace. 9) Who is Sugawarano Michizane What did he do What happenedtho him How about th his plum tree His shrine Worked under Uda Tnno (59 ) and Daigo Tenno (60 ) as Dajo Daijin. He was antiFujiwara thus demoted to Dazaifu gonno sochi (chair). Fujiwara family devised a plan to get rid of him, the first attempt did not work however, their 2 nd attempt succeeded! Drafted him to Sakimori (army) in Dazaifu (army base) that was established in Asuka Period. He wrote a poem about how he will miss the everlasting plum tree that was rich in fragrance for he knew he would never return. Years later, many folks built a shrine around the claimed plum tree that blossomed in his state in dedication of him. Nowadays it can be visited by many students in prayers of succession, dedication, & hard work. 10) What are the characteristics of Heian culture Did Heian culture have major influence from China Who are the major authors Their main works What is the significance of each work How about poetry Clothing Known as Kokufu Bunka (Japanese original culture) established in 894: the end of Ken To Shi by Sugawara Michizane. Writings were now hiragana and katakana. Literatures flourished; Makurano Soshi ‘The Pillow Book’(Essay by Seisho Nagonwhom served under Fujiwara Teishi, idea of ‘Monozukushi’ or list of things and concept of okashi or reality so a bit opposition from Murasaki’s Monono aware), Genji Monogatari ‘Tale of Genji’ (55 volume novel by Murasaki Shikibu who served one of the wives of Ichijo Tenno (66) 9861011, volumes have title based on Genji’s lover’s name except #41 it’s blank may depict death but overall the Love Story of Hikaru Genji following monoimi or love poem exchange, fashion, or usage of incense are written, a heavy concept of Monono aware or emotions; she also wrote a diary called Murasaki Shikibu Nikki around 1010, she’s the only Japanese to appear in UNESCO’s world most important figures, perhaps dated Fujiwara Michinaga and was said to be the first novel in the world finished in 1005), Tosa Nikki (Tosa Diary, written in 935 by gov’t official Kino Tsurayuki written in hiragana about a trip back from Tosa or current Kochi), Konjaku monogatari (known as ‘long time ago stories’ is a collection of fables w/ 31 volumes [8, 18, 21 missing] written in Kanji and katakana influenced author Akutagawa Ryunosuke to which his prize is literally Japanese Nobel prize for literature). Waka (57577, Japanese poetry first ordered by emperor called Chokusen wakashu & Kokin wakashu by Daigo Tenno (60 ) in 905 [Kino th Tsurayuki was one of the 4 editors to edit]). Kan’I sokutai,(men’s clothing & women’s clothing in Juuni Hitoe or 12 layer actually 810) & Sinden zukuri.(domestic architecture for aristocratic mansions built in Heiankyo 11) What is Insei What are the difference between joko and ho’o Government runs by retired emperor. Joko is a retired emperor. Ho’o is a retired emperor who becomes a monk (Shuuke: leaving your home and entering the religious life). Shirakawa Tenno established this so that no more manipulation can occur within imperial court especially from Fujiwara family. Shinsei is the direct control of the gov’t by the st emperor established under Gosanjo tenno (71 ). Shirakawa tenno becomes Joko in 1086. 12) How did Heian period end What was the problem with the imperial family (i.e., which imperial family member didn’t get along with whom) Who is ‘ojiko’ (unclechild) Why was he called so What is Hogenno ran How about Heijino ran What is Danno Ura no tatakai Did Heike and Genji fight for both of the wars Here’s a chart on how to better understand their feudal fights here’s a chart: →→→→→→→→→→→→→→→→ ↑ ↓ ↓ Shirakawa 72 ┬ ♀ ↓ ↓ rd Horikawa 73 ┬♀ ↓ ↓ ♀┬ 74 ♀┬ Toba 74 ┬♀┬ ← Goshirakawa 77 Konoe 76 Sutoku 75 ┬♀th Shigehito Hogenno ran in 1156, Sutoku joko vs. goshirakawa tenno. Stems from Shirakawa hoo nd th th (72 ) vs. Toba Tenno (74 ). Ojiko means (unclechild) and was given to Sutoku (75 ) because it was unclear if Sutoku was his son or was his grandfather’s son. 1141 Toba forces Sutoko tenno to resign and makes Sutoku’s brother as emperor (Konoe). But th Konoe dies in 1155. Toba supports his 4 son Masahito shin’no thus makes Goshirakawa tenno. War is about to uprise with Minamotono Tameyoshi, Yorikata, Tanetomo Yorinori, Tairano Tadamasa siding with Sutoku versus Goshirakawa’s side Minamoto no Yoshitomo Tairano Kiyomori, Minamotono Yorimasa, & Yoshiyasu. Toba dies before Goshirakawa launches his first strike on Sutoku causing his palace to burn down thus Goshirakawa wins. Heijino ran takes place in 1158, Goshirakawa ‘retires’ and his son becomes tenno (Nijo tenno) who in fact turned out to be the best tenno. This made Goshirakawa furious which again made opposing sides: Goshirakawa supported by Fujiwarano Michinori & Tairano Kiyomori vs Nijo tenno supported by Minamotono Yoshitomo. Heishi/Goshirakawa wins! Many Genji were killed. Because Tairano Kiyomori has been supporting Goshirakawa all this time he allowed them to gain power among Bushi. Yes, the one thing Shirakawa tried to avoid is now broken, and has the th power over to the Tairano Kiyomori or Heiji. The grandchildren of Kanmu Tenno (50 ) with around 7 different family lines. 13) How did the social class ‘bushi’ start What are the two major families Bushi is samurai (archers). Seen as police/military for noble’s land (shoen) and capital. They can inherit the status, they have more influence in the territory over land owner. They had feudal relationship as lord and vessals along with the right to tax/rent a piece of land. The two main clans are Genji and Heishi.