Exer. 120: Sketch the graph of the equation, and label the x- and y-intercepts.
Week 4 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯1 Introduction to Music Literature ♪ WEEK 4 NOTES ♪ ▯ Main Theme - HARMONY AND KEY Harmony • organization of chords ⁃ chord: a combination of three or more notes sounded simultaneously ⁃ triad - fundamental chord group in music, consisting of three tones ⁃ root: bottom of chord ⁃ 3rd, 5th respective relations of other notes to chord ⁃ TYPES of TRIADS ⁃ tonic: first note of scale, root of tonic chord. Strongest feeling of rest and stability. ⁃ dominant: 5th note of scale, root of dominant chord. consonant but weaker than tonic, often leads to tonic. ⁃ V - I cadence is the most conclusive cadence in western music. ⁃ progression: a group of chords in succession, usually indication motion of some sort ⁃ cadences - resolutions at ends of musical phrases that mark a rest or pause before the next passage ⁃ IAC/PAC - Authentic cadences - V or vii chords that lead to the tonic. Voice leading and inversion position determines whether or not the cadence is perfect. ⁃ most conclusive cadence in western music (V - I) • consonance vs. dissonance - stability and rest vs. instability and need for progression ⁃ resolution is the movement from dissonance to consonance ⁃ delay in resolution can lead to differences in harmonic tension ⁃ see: cadences Key • the key of the piece is based on the tonic of the scale (scale degree 1; do) • scale is created off of do, based on pitch relation. ⁃ tonic (1), supertonic (2), mediant (3), subdominant (4), dominant (5), submediant (6), subtonic (7) ⁃ 7 “whole” scale degrees (do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, do and variations), ⁃ Chromatic scale: 12 “half” scale degrees (do, di/ra, re, ri/me, mi, fa, fi, fi/se, sol, si/le, la, li/te, ti, do) (does not indicate any specific key) ⁃ comes from greek word “chroma” meaning color, adds color to major or minor scales ⁃ these degrees vary in MODES (different from key) • if a piece of music has a key, it is considered to be tonal. if not, it is atonal. • Major - familiar, happy. (also called Ionian mode) ⁃ do re mi fa sol la ti do ⁃ whole whole half whole whole whole half ⁃ example: U2 Beautiful Day, Taylor Swift Love Story, Beethoven’s 9th, etc. etc. • Minor - sad, melancholy ⁃ natural minor: do re me fa sol le te do (flat 3, 6, 7) ⁃ also called Aeolian mode ⁃ harmonic minor: do re me fa sol le ti do (flat 3, 6) ⁃ melodic minor: do re me fa sol la ti do te le sol fa me re do (a combination of natural and melodic) ⁃ whole half whole whole half whole whole chappythewizard.tumblr.com Week 4 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯2 ⁃ example: funeral march, Bizet Farandole, Mozart’s Overture to Don Giovanni (D minor overture), Adele Set Fire to the Rain, etc. • Modulation is the change of key within a piece that provides variety ⁃ tonic is the home key, usually returned to by the end of the piece. ⁃ Sometimes pieces will shift indefinitely; other pieces may shift without notating it in the key signature, but there is definitely a different tonal center. ⁃ when you need a pivotal moment in music that cannot be described by any one chord or motif ⁃ examples: My Heart Will Go On, Love Story, Bohemian Rhapsody, some things shift from major to minor DURING the song, you just have to pay attention. ⁃ just look at this buzz feed article and you’ll understand: http://www.buzzfeed.com/ akdobbins/12-greatest-key-changes-in-pop-music ⁃ probably no examples of subtle modulation on the exam; will most likely be stark if there is (aka, obvious change to relative major or minor, or another key, etc) Baroque Period (1600 - 1750) • Significance to history - sciences and academics booming, exploration ending, colonization testing the waters and political revolution of those colonies on the horizon. ⁃ Events ⁃ Shakespeare’s Hamlet, 1600 ⁃ Jamestowne founded 1607 ⁃ Galileo’s earth orbiting the sun discovery 1610 ⁃ King James Bible 1611 ⁃ Thirty Years War 1618 - 1648 ⁃ Salem witch trials 1692 ⁃ Thermometer invented 1714 ⁃ Calculus and Physics invented ⁃ Academie of the Sciences (science was booming) ⁃ People (non-musicians) ⁃ Leeuwenhoek, Father of Microbiology ⁃ James I of England ⁃ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz ⁃ Tirso de Molina ⁃ Rene Descartes ⁃ John Locke ⁃ Issac Newton & Gottfried Leibniz • tr ⁃ example: Judith with the head of Holofernes ⁃ c. 1530 by Lucas Cranach the ⁃ doesn’t convey action; moreso a portrait ⁃ later edition c. 1612 - 13 by Artemisia Gentile Baroque Opera • Opera ⁃ “works”:blend of multiple arts ⁃ high social status ⁃ libretto - text of the opera ⁃ collar between librettist and composer ⁃ serious and comic styles ⁃ Division of an opera s t c ⁃ A ⁃ scenes chappythewizard.tumblr.com Week 4 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯3 ⁃ recitative-in a talking matter, action takes place ⁃ secco (dry) - only basso continuo ⁃ accompanied - full orchestra ⁃ aria/arietta-song for solo voice w accompaniment, portrays emotional state ⁃ da capo aria - ABA’ form ⁃ da capo- from the head/from the top ⁃ ensemble - any number involving more than 2 people, conveys a larger situation w multiple emotions and viewpoints (main characters) ⁃ chorus- adds to the atmosphere, extras, commentary to situation ⁃ overture - short orchestral introduction at the beginning of the opera ⁃ if done between acts, called a prelude • Significance in baroque period ⁃ Florentine Camerata - group of artists, poets, musicians discussing the philosophy of music ⁃ Euridice - Jacopo Peri, 1600 - earliest surviving opera ⁃ Orfeo - Claudio Monteverdi, 1607 (Monteverdi known as the father of opera) ⁃ myth/greek histories was a common theme ⁃ Court Aristocracy ⁃ first public opera houses in venice in 1637 ⁃ Castrati (see week 3 notes) • Claudio Monteverdi, the father of opera (1567 - 1643) ⁃ Musician for Court of Mantua (1590-1611) and St. Mark’s Cathedral, Venice (1613-1643) ⁃ intensely emotional style (freedom w dissonance, pizzicato and tremolo) ) 7 0 6 1 ( o e f ⁃r O ⁃ elaborate setting of Orpheus ⁃ text mirrors natural speech ⁃ word painting - stelle and sole (stars and sun) abissi and morte (abysses and death) ⁃ Tu s’e morta ⁃ recitative for Orpheus ⁃ continuo and bass lute • Henry Purcell, english opera (1659 - 1695) s u e h p r O h s i t i r⁃ B ⁃ Royal affiliations ⁃ 1677 composer to the king ⁃ 1679 organist at westminster abbey ⁃ 1682 organist at chapel royal ⁃ Dido and Aeneas, 1689 - his only true opera ⁃ written for students ⁃ minimal orchestration ⁃ many dances and prominent chorus ⁃ Libretto Virgil’s Aeneiod - significantly condensed ⁃ Dido’s Lament ⁃ descending chromatic line; stated 11 times ⁃ recitative and aria ⁃ Musical style ⁃ melodious, lively, folklike, reminiscent of English song ⁃ harsh dissonances chappythewizard.tumblr.com Week 4 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯4 ⁃ ground bass- repeated musical ideas over which changing melodies are placed (basso ostinato) Chorale and Cantata • chorale - hymn tune sung to religious german text ⁃ easily sung/remembered • chorale prelude - a short piece preceding chorale based on chorale melody • church cantata - work for chorus, soloists, organ and orchestra, set to a german religious text ⁃ JS Bach wrote nearly 300, of which 200 survive ⁃ Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme ⁃ cantata no. 140 (1731) ⁃ seven movements ⁃ 1. Chorus and Orchestra ⁃ ritornello (orchestra) ⁃ chorale melody (soprano) ⁃ imitative material (lower voices) ⁃ 4. Tenor Chorale ⁃ unison violins & violas as continuo ⁃ chorale melody from tenors ⁃ 7. Chorale ⁃ unadorned chorale tune ⁃ congregation participates Oratorio - Large scale work for chorus, soloists, and orchestra. Like an opera, but more sacred text. • no staging (acting/scenery/costuming) • narrative, biblical text • many movements • George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) ⁃ not from a musical family - initially in law school ⁃ early career performing in Hamburg ⁃ moved to Italy and composed operas ⁃ 1710: court position in Germany ⁃ Success in England at royal academy of music ⁃ 1753 he was nearly blind c i s ⁃uM ⁃ operas-mostly serious, emotional virtuosic arias ⁃ oratorios - mostly old testament subjects, w developing plot (produced during lent, when operas were prohibited) ⁃ Messiah (Alleluia Chorus) 1741 ⁃ Premiered in Dublin 1742 ⁃ no central plot or characters ⁃ several revisions ⁃ early performances much smaller ⁃ 3. Aria “Ev’ry valley shall be exalted” ⁃ uses string ritornello ⁃ word painting ⁃ “exalted,” rising melisma ⁃ “every mountain and hill made low” - lower note by end of phrase ⁃ “the crooked straight” ⁃ “the rough places plain” chappythewizard.tumblr.com Week 4 MUL2010 Intro to Music Lit ▯5 ⁃ 12. Chorus: for unto us a child is born ⁃ chorus, strings, continuo ⁃ many textures ⁃ polyphonic duets, melismatic line ⁃ new text = new melodic idea ⁃ homophonic texture, loud dynamic for important text ⁃ 44. Chorus: Hallelujah - essentially the most famous chorus of all time ⁃ chorus, strings, continuo, trumpets, timpani ⁃ uses all textures ⁃ monophonic: emphatic statements ex. “For the lord god omnipotent reigneth,” ⁃ polyphonic: shouts of Hallelujah throughout and “and he shall reign forever and ever” ⁃ homophonic: beginning “Hallelujah” middle chorale-like section “And of his christ, and of his christ” ▯ ▯ ▯ Thanks for reading these study notes! Good luck! Any questions or comments visit chappythewizard.tumblr.com find more notes on Music Lit, Theory, and History on Studysoup! chappythewizard.tumblr.com