In a 1943 experiment (Whitlock and Bliss, A Bioassay Technique for Antihelminthics, Journal of Parasitology, 29, pp. 4858) 10 albino rats were used to study the effectiveness of carbon tetrachloride as a treatment for worms. Each rat received an injection of worm larvae. After 8 days, the rats were randomly divided into two groups of 5 each; each rat in the first group received a dose of .032 cc of carbon tetrachloride, whereas the dosage for each rat in the second group was .063 cc. Two days later the rats were killed, and the number of adult worms in each rat was determined. The numbers detected in the group receiving the .032 dosage were 421, 462, 400, 378, 413 whereas they were 207, 17, 412, 74, 116 for those receiving the .063 dosage. Do the data prove that the larger dosage is more effective than the smaller?
HSES 244 Exam 1 Study Guide Why Do We Need PE o Common causes of death (2004): Diseases of the heart Malignant neoplasms (cancers) Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke) Chronic lower respiratory diseases Accidents (unintentional injuries) o Actual causes of death (2000): Tobacco Poor diet and physical activity Alcohol consumption Microbial agents Toxic agents o Obesity Obesity – an excess accumulation of fat beyond that considered “normal” for age, gender and body type Males- 20% body fat (college age ideal: 10-15%) Females- 30% body fat (college age ideal: 15-22%) Over 50% of Americans are now considered obese Related diseases cost the US economy more than $100 billion every year 23% of all US deaths are linked to sedentary lifestyles that begin at childhood Overweight adolescents have a 70% chance of becoming overweight adults & the problems associated o In 2003, NYC estimated that 1 in 5 kindergarten students entered their school system already clinically obese Overweight – weight above that predicted by height/weight charts Overfat – excess fat, usually in combination with poorly developed muscles. (to have the proper ratio of fat to weight, appropriate muscle size must be maintained) o Heart disease Major risk factors: Tobacco smoke High blood cholesterol High blood pressure Physical inactivity Heredity/race Diabetes Obesity o UnFitness boom 50% of 6-12 year old girls & 30% of 6-12 year old boys can NOT finish a mile faster than walking speed 55% of girls & 25% of boys can NOT do one pull-up 40% of young children (5-8 years old) now show at least one heart-disease risk factor o Opt out Currently 32 states allow children to “opt out” of PE Reasons to be exempt High physical competency test score Participation in community service activities Participation in community sports activities Participation in school activities other than sports (e.g., band or chorus) States allowing “opt out” for health or religion: 30 o HypoKinetic Disease Disease caused by LACK of regular physical activity Complications: Cardio-pulmonary Low back pain Psychological Obesity o Emphasis in PE Performance-related Activities that contribute to skills o i.e. agility, flexibility, balance, strength, speed, form Health-related Activities which protect the body against disease or sickness o i.e. cardiovascular fitness, nutrition, proper joint alignment o Aerobic exercise Exercise done at a pace/intensity where the body CAN supply enough oxygen for energy production needed to perform the exercise Usually done for a minimum of 30 minutes Increases cardio-vascular fitness, endurance & health o Anaerobic exercise Exercise done at a pace/intensity where the body is UNABLE to supply enough oxygen for energy production needed to perform the exercise Energy is supplied via anaerobic glycolysis (provides energy but creates lactic acid) Usually short duration done at high intensity i.e. lifting weights, sprinting, plyometrics o 5 components of physical fitness: Cardiovascular endurance Muscular endurance Muscular strength Body composition Flexibility – a measure of the range of motion available at the joint Determined by: o Shape of bones and cartilage at the joint o Depth of bone/socket insertion o Ligament length and point of insertion of ligament Specific to each joint…not necessarily limited by large muscle mass Loss of flexibility: o Lack of use o Injury o Age Types of stretching: o Static stretch (hold 7-10 seconds) o Ballistic stretch o Partner assisted static stretch o Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) In stretch position, consciously contract muscle, then relax to further the stretch o Excuses for inactivity: Motivation Times Money Skills Knowledge o Keys to a healthy, prolonged life: Low Sodium Low Fat No Smoking Exercise Regularly Ch.1 – Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport Studies- Dynamic Fields o Physical education – a process through which an individual obtains optimal physical, mental, and social skills and fitness through physical activity o Kinesiology – the study of human movement o Exercise science – the scientific analysis of the human body in motion o Sports – physical activities governed by formal or informal rules that involve competition against an opponent or oneself and are engaged in for fun, recreation, or reward o Physical activity – repetitive movements by the skeletal muscles that require energy and produce health benefits o Physical fitness – the body’s capacity to adapt and respond favorably to physical effort o Exercise – involves physical movements that increase the rate of energy use of the body. o Play – amusements engaged in freely, for fun, and devoid of constraints. o Leisure is the freedom from work or responsibilities so that time may or may not be used for physical activity. o Recreation refreshes or renews a person’s strength and spirit after work; a diversion that occurs during leisure hours. o Athletics are organized, highly structured competitive activities in which skilled individuals participate. o Games, usually implying winners and losers, can range from simple diversions to cooperative activities to competitions with significant outcomes governed by rules. o Health-related fitness is the level of positive well-being associated with heart, muscle, and joint functions that improve healthfulness of life. o Skill-related fitness refers to achieving levels of ability to perform physical movements that are efficient and effective. o Components of Health-Related Physical Fitness: Cardiorespiratory endurance — The ability of the lungs, heart, and blood vessels to deliver adequate amounts of oxygen to the cells to meet the demands of prolonged physical activity Muscular strength — The ability to exert maximum force against resistance Muscular endurance — The ability of muscles to exert sub- maximal force repeatedly over a period of time Flexibility — The ability of a joint to move freely through its full range of motion Body composition — Percent body fat or lean body mass o Components of Skill-Related Physical Fitness: Agility — ability to change directions rapidly and accurately Balance — ability to maintain equilibrium while stationary or moving Coordination — ability to perform motor tasks smoothly and accurately Power — ability to exert force rapidly through a combination of strength and speed Reaction time — ability to respond or react quickly to a stimulus Speed — ability to quickly perform a movement o FITT Principles Frequency — how often a person should train Intensity — how hard a person should exercise Time — how long or the duration a person should exercise Type — kind or mode of exercise performed Ch.2 Ch.3 Ch.4 Ch.5 Ch.6