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In 44, explain how the test would be modified if the

Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780123948113 | Authors: Sheldon M. Ross ISBN: 9780123948113 226

Solution for problem 45 Chapter 8

Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 5th Edition

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Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780123948113 | Authors: Sheldon M. Ross

Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists | 5th Edition

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Problem 45

In 44, explain how the test would be modified if the population mean were known in advance.

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Paul Murdock 3/30/2016 Medical Sciences Major Class of 2019 BIOL II 1082 Dr. Kinkle Exam 3 Study Guide Defenses Against Pathogens I (43.1-43.2) 1. ____ ____ are stored in connective tissue and contain histamine which causes _________, allowing passage of nutrients to infection site. 2. ________ are protein signals between cells. 3. Macrophages are stored in _________ and act to engulf _______ by phagocytosis. 4. ___ ______ bind to antigen fragments and are on _______ __ _____. 5. Antibodies and B cell antigen receptors bind to antigens in ______ or _____ on surface of ______ or in body fluids. 6. Name the five cardinal signs of inflammation. 7. B cells _____ and T cells _______, allowing immune system to expand. 8. ________ signals uninfected cells and reduces protein synthesis due to viral threat. 9. Name the four characteristics of adaptive immunity. Defenses Against Pathogens II (43.3-43.4) 1. ______ _ cells send signal to T cells with help of ______ to increase antibody production. 2. ______ _____ help secrete antibodies. 3. T cells are a part of the ______-______ immune system. 4. Define passive immunity. 5. The loss of helper T cells impairs which immune response 6. Allergies are similar to ________ _______ because they involve a loss of tolerance to non- harmful substances. 7. Allergies may occur because IgE antibodies attach to ____ _____ which release histamine. 8. ________ proteins punch holes in cells with antibodies, eventually causing the cell to lyse. 9. True or False: Antibodies are a part of the inflammatory response. 10. B cells are activated by _____ _ _____ to make antibodies for specific pathogens. Osmotic Regulation (44.1-44.3) 1. _______ must offset water loss by taking in water in a hyperosmotic environment. 2. Freshwater animals produce ______ urine. Why 3. Marine animals are _______ compared to their environment. 4. Ammonia is most common in _______ animals and ____ ____. 5. Urea is common in Uric acid Rank ammonia, uric acid, and urea in order of toxicity from least to most toxic. 6. Protonephridia function as _________ in ________. 7. True or False: Annelids have an open circulatory system. 8. Are osmoregulators more similar to endotherms or ectotherms 9. Marine invertebrates are __________. 10. Sea birds use ________ _______ to excrete concentrated salt waste. Osmotic Regulation II (44.3-44.5) 1. Reabsorption occurs in ______ _____. 2. ADH functions by way of ________ ______ because it constantly returns blood osmolarity back to set point. 3. Hydration indicates a _____ in ADH secretion. 4. Arid environments lead to _____ loops of Henle. 5. Decreased ADH causes ________ urine. 6. Secretion occurs in ______ _____ by regulation of __ secretion and reabsorption of ____. Neurons and Resting Potentials (48.1-48.2) 1. Ion channels are _______ and proteins are _______ in the plasma membrane. 2. ______ _____ nourish neurons and regulate fluid around neurons. 3. When bundled the axons of neurons form ______. 4. Inside cell is _______ charged while resting. 5. When the inside of the cell turns positive due to ion transport this is known as __________. 6. Efferent refers to the signaling of ______ neurons. 7. Ungated ion channels leak by _______. 8. Label the diagram. Action Potential and Synapses (48.3-48.4) 1. _____ ______ is when magnitude varies with respect to stimulus strength. 2. __________ is when more K+ leaves and Cl- is going in, making the inside more negative. 3. Action potential arises due to ______-_______ ion channels. 4. ____ flows in during the rising phase. 5. Behind depolarization is a zone of __________, where ___ channels are inactivated. 6. True or False: Action potential only travels in one direction. 7. Most synapses are _________. 8. If a neurotransmitter depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane it is referred to as _________. Nervous Systems (49.1-49.3) 1. Organisms with bilateral symmetry have ___________ nervous systems. 2. Interneurons are located in the _______ ______. 3. Name 3 examples of glial cells and what their functions are. 4. The part of the brain known as the ________ functions in involuntary activities. 5. The cerebrum is located in the ________. 6. Function of cerebral cortex 7. _______ ________ enables left/right hemisphere communication in the brain. Sensory Reception and Mechanoreceptors (50.1-50.2) 1. ______ ______ regulate the output of action potentials to the CNS. 2. ________ _______ refers to decrease awareness, such as not recognizing a heartbeat. 3. Name the five (basic) types of receptors and their functions. 4. _________ detect relative position of body parts. 5. When hairs within bundle are displaced within the ear, ___________ are activated which changes membrane potential of hair cell. 6. ______ distinguish pitch because _______ _______ is not uniform along its length. 7. Other vertebrates use ______ ____ system to perceive position in water. 8. True or False: Action potentials can vary in duration. 9. Label the six missing parts of the diagram. Tasting, smelling, and seeing (50.3-50.4) 1. Vertebrate eyes focus by changing the size of the ____. 2. Invertebrates have ____-____ eyes. 3. In bright light _______ remains active. 4. There are _____ types of taste detected by _________ ____ associated with ________. 5. Individual taste expresses _____ receptor type and detects _______. 6. Binding of _______ substance to receptor triggers change in ion channel. 7. In olfaction sensory cells are ______. 8. Rhodopsin activates ______ when stimulated. 9. Label the missing parts of the diagram. ANSWER KEY Defenses Against Pathogens I (43.1-43.2) 1. Mast cells are stored in connective tissue and contain histamine which causes vasodilation, allowing passage of nutrients to infection site. 2. Cytokines are protein signals between cells. 3. Macrophages are stored in tissues & lymph nodes and act to engulf pathogens by phagocytosis. 4. MHC molecules bind to antigen fragments and are on surface of cells. 5. Antibodies and B cell antigen receptors bind to antigens in blood or lymph on surface of pathogen or in body fluids. 6. Name the five cardinal signs of inflammation. Pain, swelling, heat, redness, and loss of function. 7. B cells differentiate and T cells proliferate, allowing immune system to expand. 8. Interferon signals uninfected cells and reduces protein synthesis due to viral threat. 9. Name the four characteristics of adaptive immunity. Diversity, self-recognition, amplification, memory, and specificity. Defenses Against Pathogens II (43.3-43.4) 1. Helper T cells send signal to T cells with help of cytokines to increase antibody production. 2. Plasma cells help secrete antibodies. 3. T cells are a part of the cell-mediated immune system. 4. Define passive immunity. Is when antibodies are made in a source outside of the body, such as the exchange between a mother and her fetus. 5. The loss of helper T cells impairs which immune response Both humoral and cell- mediated. 6. Allergies are similar to autoimmune diseases because they involve a loss of tolerance to non- harmful substances. 7. Allergies may occur because IgE antibodies attach to mast cells which release histamine. 8. Complement proteins punch holes in cells with antibodies, eventually causing the cell to lyse. 9. True or False: Antibodies are a part of the inflammatory response. False 10. B cells are activated by helper T cells to make antibodies for specific pathogens. Osmotic Regulation (44.1-44.3) 1. Osmoregulators must offset water loss by taking in water in a hyperosmotic environment. 2. Freshwater animals produce dilute urine. Why Because they are hyperosmotic compared to their environment and they must conserve water. 3. Marine animals are hypoosmotic compared to their environment. 4. Ammonia is most common in inaquatic animals and bony fish. 5. Urea is common in Uric acid Rank ammonia, uric acid, and urea in order of toxicity from least to most toxic. Urea is common in mammals and most amphibians, uric acid is common in birds, insects, and reptiles. Least to most toxic: Uric acid, urea, ammonia. 6. Protonephridia function as osmoregulators in freshwater flatworms. 7. True or False: Annelids have an open circulatory system. False 8. Are osmoregulators more similar to endotherms or ectotherms Endotherms because they both self-regulate. 9. Marine invertebrates are osmoconformers. 10. Sea birds use countercurrent exchange to excrete concentrated salt waste. Osmotic Regulation II (44.3-44.5) 1. Reabsorption occurs in proximal tube. 2. ADH functions by way of negative feedback because it constantly returns blood osmolarity back to set point. 3. Hydration indicates a decrease in ADH secretion. 4. Arid environments lead to longer loops of Henle. 5. Decreased ADH causes diluted urine. 6. Secretion occurs in distal tube by regulation of K+ secretion and reabsorption of NaCl. Neurons and Resting Potentials (48.1-48.2) 1. Ion channels are passive and proteins are carriers in the plasma membrane. 2. Glial cells nourish neurons and regulate fluid around neurons. 3. When bundled the axons of neurons form nerves. 4. Inside cell is negatively charged while resting. 5. When the inside of the cell turns positive due to ion transport this is known as depolarization. 6. Efferent refers to the signaling of motor neurons. 7. Ungated ion channels leak by diffusion. 8. Label the diagram. Action Potential and Synapses (48.3-48.4) 1. Graded potential is when magnitude varies with respect to stimulus strength. 2. Hyperpolarization is when more K+ leaves and Cl- is going in, making the inside more negative. 3. Action potential arises due to voltage-gated ion channels. 4. Na+ flows in during the rising phase. 5. Behind depolarization is a zone of repolarization, where Na+ channels are inactivated. 6. True or False: Action potential only travels in one direction. True 7. Most synapses are chemical. 8. If a neurotransmitter depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane it is referred to as excitatory. Nervous Systems (49.1-49.3) 1. Organisms with bilateral symmetry have sophisticated nervous systems. 2. Interneurons are located in the spinal cord. 3. Name 3 examples of glial cells and what their functions are. Schwann cells produce myelin sheaths surrounding axons in PNS, astrocytes help form blood-brain barriers, and microglia are immune cells in CNS which protect against pathogens. 4. The part of the brain known as the hindbrain functions in involuntary activities. 5. The cerebrum is located in the forebrain. 6. Function of cerebral cortex Voluntary movement, perception, and learning. 7. Corpus callosum enables left/right hemisphere communication in the brain. Sensory Reception and Mechanoreceptors (50.1-50.2) 1. Sensory receptors regulate the output of action potentials to the CNS. 2. Sensory adaptation refers to decrease awareness, such as not recognizing a heartbeat. 3. Name the five (basic) types of receptors and their functions. Mechanoreceptors sense physical deformation, chemoreceptors detect solute concentration, electromagnetic receptors detect forms of electromagnetic energy, thermoreceptors detect heat and cold, and nociceptors detect pain. 4. Proprioceptors detect relative position of body parts. 5. When hairs within bundle are displaced within the ear, mechanoreceptors are activated which changes membrane potential of hair cell. 6. Cochlea distinguish pitch because basilar membrane is not uniform along its length. 7. Other vertebrates use lateral line system to perceive position in water. 8. True or False: Action potentials can vary in duration. False 9. Label the six missing parts of the diagram. Tasting, smelling, and seeing (50.3-50.4) 1. Vertebrate eyes focus by changing the size of the lens. 2. Invertebrates have single-lens eyes. 3. In bright light rhodopsin remains active. 4. There are five types of taste detected by receptor cells associated with papillae. 5. Individual taste expresses single receptor type and detects tastants. 6. Binding of tasting substance to receptor triggers change in ion channel. 7. In olfaction sensory cells are neurons. 8. Rhodopsin activates transducin when stimulated. 9. Label the missing parts of the diagram.

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Chapter 8, Problem 45 is Solved
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Textbook: Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists
Edition: 5
Author: Sheldon M. Ross
ISBN: 9780123948113

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