Kicking an Extra Point. In Canadian football, after a touchdown the team has the opportunity to earn one more point by kicking the ball over the bar between the goal posts. The bar is 10.0 ft above the ground, and the ball is kicked from ground level, 36.0 ft horizontally from the bar (Fig. P3.58). Football regulations are stated in English units, but convert them to SI units for this problem. (a) There is a minimum angle above the ground such that if the ball is launched below this angle, it can never clear the bar, no matter how fast it is kicked. What is this angle? (b) If the ball is kicked at 45.0 above the horizontal, what must its initial speed be if it is just to clear the bar? Express your answer in m>s and in km>h.
Criminology Chapter 2: Nature and Extent of Crime Prime Sources of Criminal Data o Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Provides data on the characteristics of people arrested This is a reliable measurement of crime trends This data is sent every month to FBI for a yearly report. They compute the changes in numbers Part I Crimes (Violent) Criminal Homicide o Murder and manslaughter Forcible rape Robbery Aggravated assault Part I Crimes (Property) FBI reports these also Burglary Larceny theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Part 2 Crimes FBI does NOT report All other crimes o Sex crimes, drug offenses, vandalism, etc. Cleared Crimes FBI reports these When one individual is arrested, charged, and turned over to court for prosecution By exceptional means o Ex: fled country or died Validity and Limitations Only reports known crimes Only most serious are reported Fail to differentiate between failed and completed crimes Many aren’t reported by the UCR o Some victims are criminals Ex: if YOUR drugs are stolen, prostitutes, etc. o National IncidentBased Reporting Systems (NIBRS) Reported to FBI with UCR The Future of UCR Requires more data Includes more crimes Has yet to be fully implemented Survey Reports Survey research o Sampling Selecting a limited number of people for a study as a representation of a larger group o Population All people who share a particular characteristic o National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Unreported crime and personal characteristics of victims Annual survey of victims People call and ask if you have been a victim Information regarding violence, offenders, and crimes Addresses “nonreporting” issue Fewer than ½ of all crimes are reported 1/3 of all property crimes are reported 40% of sexual assaults are reported Conducted annually by US Censorship Bureau Nature of injury, economic problems, situation, etc. Helps understand why some aren’t reported to police Validity and limitations Overreporting o Thinking there’s a theft but there isn’t Underreporting o Someone breaks into your car and you don’t report it o Victim is dead Inability to record personal criminal activity Sampling errors o Are you representing the nation as a whole Inadequate question format o Could be confusing to viewers o Self Report Survey Information on personal characteristics of offenders Research approach that requires subjects to reveal the own participation in delinquent or criminal acts Given in groups to already monitored people o People on probation, etc. Anonymous Additional questions about attitudes, values, and behaviors Validity and limitations Selfincriminations o People don’t want to admit to another crime if they are in a “3 strikes, you’re out” situation Exaggeration o People exaggerate to be funny or mess with other criminals Missing cases