A car speeds up while the engine delivers constant power. Is the acceleration greater at the beginning of this process or at the end? Explain.
Study Guide What to review Definitions of hazard, disaster, catastrophe, risk –Geological processes as Energy and Earth Materials interacting to cause change Relationship between hazards and population, why more disasters are becoming catastrophes The frequency magnitude relationship Concept of Mitigation Concepts of forecasting and prediction (covered in text) know the differences Earth Materials Most common elements in crust Definition of minerals; important families of minerals (silicates, carbonates and clays) and their significance Definition of rocks; three families of rocks •Igneous •Sedimentary •metamorphic Structure of the Earth Earth’s compositional layers •Core, mantle and crust Oceanic and continental crust Earth’s physical layers •Lithosphere and asthenosphere Internal Energy of the Earth Sources of Heat in the Earth Plate Tectonics Definition, significance Relationship between plate tectonics and structure of the earth Driving forces Types of plate boundaries Hotspots, what they are, how they differ from plate tectonics. Earthquakes •what is a fault •meaning of strike and dip and hanging wall and footwall Characteristics of normal, thrust/reverse and strikeslip faults How faults generate earthquakes through the Elastic Rebound Mechanism Types and characteristics of seismic waves: •Body waves (P and S) •Surface waves What are the Focus and Epicenter How seismic waves are used to locate quakes Magnitude: •what is it •how is it measured •how do magnitude scales work Effects of quakes •Ground motion •Ground motion amplification •Liquefaction •Fires Intensity: •how it is measured •Mercalli scale •Importance of isoseismal maps Mitigation •Seismic engineering and retrofitting •Planning, education, hazard mapping Forecasting and Prediction 2010 Haitian Earthquake Tsunami Definition and causes How quakes generate tsunami Difference between tsunami and wind waves Tsunamis and Hilo, Hawaii Warning systems and limitations 2011 Tohoku quake and tsunami Volcanoes The three magma types and their characteristics Silica and its significance The three melting processes, how they relate to magma type and tectonic setting – Eruptive products • Lava •Pyroclasts: scoria, pumice, ash • Ash fall • Pyroclastic flows • Lahars • Debris Flows VEI Eruptions types, characteristics, relation to magma types • Hawaiian • Strombolian •Vulcanian • Plinian Volcano types, how they relate to types of magma and eruptions