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While hovering, a typical flying insect applies an average

University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780321973610 | Authors: Hugh D. Young Roger A. Freedman ISBN: 9780321973610 228

Solution for problem 6.62 Chapter 6

University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition

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University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780321973610 | Authors: Hugh D. Young Roger A. Freedman

University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition

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Problem 6.62

While hovering, a typical flying insect applies an average force equal to twice its weight during each downward stroke. Take the mass of the insect to be 10 g, and assume the wings move an average downward distance of 1.0 cm during each stroke. Assuming 100 downward strokes per second, estimate the average power output of the insect.

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• Kingdom Fungi= Zygotic Meiosis ◦ Heterosomes ◦ exoenzymes ◦ absorptive ◦ almost no movement ◦ cell walls with chitin ◦ nonseptate/septate hyphae ◦ mycelium and single celled yeast ◦ a great variety of spores ‣ primary for dispersal ‣ while dispersing they are dormant and very adaptive against human conditions ◦ Phylum Chytridiomycota ‣ aquatic fungi with flagellated zoospores,including parasites of amphibian skin ‣ only fungi with flagellated cells- zoospores • flagella is an ancient characteristic ◦ Phylum Zygomycota ‣ bread molds,sugar molds,and pin fungi ‣ thick walled,dormant zygospores ◦ PhylumAscomycota ‣ True sac fungi (ascus) ‣ asexual spores (conidia) ‣ sexual spores (ascospores) ◦ Phylum Giomeromycota ‣ arbuscular mycorrhizae ‣ arbuscular- microscopic tree,arms are inside of cell of higher plant ‣ grow in association with plant ◦ Phylum Basidiomycota ‣ mushrooms-edible and toadstools- poisonous ‣ no asexual spores,no gametangia ‣ sexual spores= basidiospore ‣ zygotic meiosis- plasmogamy first- grow the karyotype ◦ Lichens ‣ composite organisms ‣ photobiont= alga cyanobacteria,photosynthesis ‣ mycobiont= fungi,lichen ‣ cructoise,foliose,fructose- branches ◦ Imperfect Fungi ‣ no sexual spores stages known ‣ penicillin- on oranges ‣ black mold,athletes foot • KingdomAnimalia ◦ no cell walls,multicellular ◦ oviparous= egg laying or ovoviviparous=lay eggs after hatching or viviparous= live birth ◦ heterotrophic- process of eating food starts with ingestion and is followed by digestion,which is then follow by eegstion (getting rid of extra) ◦ all animals have risen from a single common ancestor= monophyletic ◦ sexual/asexual reproduction= all GAMETIC MEIOSIS ◦ movement use locomotory structures (appendages:arms,legs,flippers,wings) ◦ sessile animals= no movement;maybe some movement in earlier stages of life ◦ diverse= 40 different phyla ◦ 99% are invertebrate ◦ evolutionary trends ‣ level of organization= all multicellular animals • earliest stages= cellular level of organization;specialized cells don't function as a unit • tissue= cells function at a unit;see division of labor • organ system= tissues are combined ‣ symmetry • in the begining animals lacked symmetry • as animals became more locomotory they became more symmetrical • asymmetrical= no symmetry • radial= can choose any plane to bisect the animal and have equal halves ◦ suited for sessile or weak powers of locomotion • bilateral= high levels of locomotory,one plane that we can bisect the animal and get equal halves ◦ cephalization= the development of a head ◦ Secondary radial symmetry= second time to be radial in a species evolutionary history ‣ radial--->bilateral--->radial again ‣ Body Cavity • acoelomate= lack a body cavity all together • cavity that surrounds the gut or any other internal organs • psuedocoelomate= not solid tissue but fluid filling the space between the body wall and the gut ◦ seen in very small animals because they don't have room for a body cavity anymore ◦ polyphyletic= multiple ancestors • exocoelomate= space is lined with a membrane and allows for greater complexity ◦ membrane that lines body cavity is called= peritoneum ‣ embryological development • separate phyla • starts as zygote • simple gut- only mouth no anus • complete gut- 2 openings • protostome= first mouth • duderosome= second mouth,mouth comes from anus • triploblastic= 3 germ layers • diploblastic= 2 germ layers ‣ Segmentation= metamerism • body segments are fused to produce a body region ( head,thorax,abdomen) • Tagmosis= body regions ‣ Other • feeding structures ◦ lophophore= one developed once in evolutionary history • larval stages ◦ trochophore ◦ FamilyTree: ‣ Metazoa (as opposed to protozoa) • Parazoa-sponges • Eumetazoa-animals with true tissues ◦ Radiata ◦ Bilateria ‣ Protosomia • Lophotrochozoa • Ecdysozoa ‣ Deuterostomia- including phylum chordata ◦ Basal Metazoa- a current controversy between phylum Porifera and phylum Ctenophora ‣ Ctenophora sister vs.Porifera- sister hypothesis ‣ sponges are basal vs.ctenophores are basal • evidence shows that ctenophores are the most basal metazoans ‣ Phylum Porifera- sponges • only animals to have cellular level of organization • lack of symmetry • sessile adults • matrix- mesophyll- middle,found between cells and skeletons (with cells and skeleton imbedded) • Mesophyll Cell types: ◦ choanocytes=most important cell type,unique to sponges ‣ often called collar cells- color is not a solid membrane but a folded membrane with microvilli ‣ flagellum that moves water towards the inside of the sponge ‣ filter feeding happens by choanocytes ‣ water flow helps eliminate waste,distribution of gametes,respiratory gases are exchanged (oxygen supply from water come in and carbon dixode with water going out) ◦ archaeocytes ‣ are ameboid in their overall shape ‣ have pseudopods ‣ capable of moving around inside the body of a sponge ‣ picks up food from a choanocyte and takes it to the sponge ‣ secreting the skeleton ◦ porocytes ‣ unique to sponges ‣ holes in the sponge that are individual cells with a shape of a tube ‣ water passes from outside of the sponge to the inside of the sponge ◦ pinacocytes ‣ flat cells that cover surfaces inside and outside of sponges • Mesophyll Skeleton: ◦ Organis fibers ‣ collagen ‣ spongin ◦ Inorganic spicules ‣ calcareous= calcium based ‣ silicious= silicious based,glass like ‣ remain as separate pieces providing support ‣ some fuse together • 3 body types: ◦ Aquiferous systems:trace water flow through structures ◦ Ascon ‣ asconoid ‣ single osculum ‣ choanocytes line spongocoel ‣ simple body type ‣ porocytes form ostia ‣ thin body wall ‣ limit of body size:limited number of choanocytes ‣ the simplest aquiferous systems ‣ water flow:water enters sponge through ostia and is now in the spongocoel and then travels back out again through the osculum ◦ Sycon ‣ single osculum ‣ choanocytes line flagellated chambers ‣ ostia leads to incurrent canals ‣ prosopytes ◦ Leucon ‣ multiple oscula ‣ no spongocoel ‣ incurrent and excurrent canals ‣ prosopytes and apopoytes • 3 classes of sponges ◦ Class:Calcarea ‣ ascon,sycon,leucon ‣ calcareous spicules ‣ all are marine and small ◦ Class:Hexactinellida ‣ hexactines- 6-rayed spicules are made os silicon dioxide ‣ siliceous spicules ‣ deep marine sponges ‣ most of there part become fused as they are formed ‣ have connected cells in glass form ‣ fused layer= syncytium ◦ Class:Demospongiae ‣ 80 % of all sponges are included in this class ‣ all have luecon body types ‣ marine and fresh H2O systems • only fresh water sponges ‣ silicious spicules and/or spongin fibers ‣ lots of variety of shapes in this class • bath sponges:spongin only • boring sponge- Cliona ciliata,archeanocytes each have calcareous shells ◦ bioerosion • Fresh H2O sponges ◦ gemmales- dormancy and dispersal ◦ totipotent= can specialize into other types of cells ◦ only contain archaocytes but through the use of totipotent these cells can specialize into other cell types ◦ Sclerosponges- hard sponges ‣ hard,calcareous,basal skeleton ‣ sclerospongiae (usually combined with Demospongiae) ◦ Eumetazoa ‣ Phylum Ctenophora= comb jellies • current controversy whether this group or poriferia should be at the base of the tree • ctenes= rows of fused cilia in 8 ctene rows;used for locomotion ◦ also used for feeding= tentacle that are capable of contraction and have colloblasts "fishing" for food, once they catch a prey they roll their bodies while they contract their tentacles and use the ctenes as well • largest organisms that locomote with cilia • possibly basal to the animal kingdom • biradial symmetry • diploblastic= 2 germ layers;all tissues can be traced back to ectoderm or endoderm origin • colloblasts= unique to this phylum;specialized cell or glue cells that aid them in there capture of prey ◦ adhesive cells on tentacles ◦ used in prey capture • all you see when looking at this animals are the bioluminescent ctenes • many transparent and bioluminescent • 200+ species • 2 classes (with or without tentacles) • most planktonic ‣ super phylum Phylum Cnidaria (stinging animals) and maybe Ctenophora= Class Radiata • gradual symmetry • diploblastic • 2developmental body forms:polyp and medusa ◦ Polyp= feeding stage;long amount of their life is in this form • mouth,hypostome or manubrium,tentacles,body column or bell,attached or unattached,pedal disc,thin or thick mesoglea= structures in polyp and medusa • epidermis and gastrodermis, • gastrovascular cavity= skeletal support,gastric activity,hydrostatic skeleton because of this cavity ◦ simple gut= only one opening;the mouth;food and waste use one hole;lack of complexity • mesoglea= layer between tissues,composed mainly of proteins;gel like or glue like • Cnidocytes with nemacysts= stinging cells;only cnidarians can grow these cells ◦ cnido= stinging and cyte= cells ◦ injects a weapon called nematocysts ◦ eversible= can turn inside out ◦ cnidocil is triggered and causes operculum to release pressure on the nematocysts to come out and inject venom • Class Hydrozoa= Hydra,Chlorphyta,and others;not true jellyfish ◦ Life cycle includes polyp only or polyp and medusa (medusa dominant) ◦ solitary individuals ◦ colonial polyps with polymorphism ‣ portuguesa man-o-war • not a jelly fish • entire colony of many individuals attached together ‣ blue button ‣ by-the-wind-sailor ◦ axial polyp- nuematophore ◦ Polyps of three different kinds: ‣ gastrozooids= feeding polyp ‣ gonozooids= asexual reproduction,produce other individuals by budding ‣ dactylozooids= up to 30 meters in length,tremendously large,polyp so highly modified that it may be considered a tentacle ◦ Craspedacusta sowerbyi- freshwater jellyfish ‣ found in southeastern US ‣ found once a year in lake martin ‣ medusa is dominant ◦ Obelia ‣ colony:gastrozooids,gonozooids, • coenosarc= stem like portion of colony;works for some to feed and others for reproduction; connected to gastrovascular cavity of gastrozooids ‣ planula larva ◦ hydromedusae with velum= only in medusa of hydrozoa ‣ velum= ring like structure;like iris diagram in your own eye;contractile;gives strength to the cell; holds the cell in place • Class Scyphozoa- true jellyfish ◦ Moon jelly= tiny tentacles;shape of bell is a little more shallow;no velum;gastrovascular cavity is comprised by a number go thin canal that have a flower like appearance ‣ oral arms=manubrium ◦ Scyphozoan Life Cycle: ‣ egg and sperm ‣ planula ‣ scyphistoma= specific word for early polyp stage;feeding polyp ‣ strobila= longitudinal budding;chain of longitudinally produced buds ‣ ephyra= grows to become sexually mature medusa ‣ medusa ‣ Cyan gigantea- giant jellyfish ‣ Upside down jellyfish- symbiotic algae in shallow waters for light for photosynthetic algae ‣ thimble jelly ‣ stalked jelly= looks like a medusa on a stalk • Class Cubozoa- box jellyfish ◦ squarish bell with corners;makes them much stronger swimmers ◦ most venomous animals in the world ◦ Chironex fleckeri- sea wasp ◦ In australia • ClassAnthozoa- anemones and coral ◦ polyp only,no medusa ◦ large polyps with septa dividing gvc ◦ sepal filaments= edge of incomplete septa and has nematocysts ◦ acontia threads with cnidocytes= heavily armed with nematocysts;can attack prey and defend against predators ◦ both asexual and sexual reproduction but these must take place in the polyp only ◦ in order to get larger there is a folding in the body wall and produces the septa and now the gastrovascular cavity is divided ◦ polyp has a complete pharnyx= structure just inside the mouth ◦ live solitary life cycles= anemones ◦ live in colonial life cycles= most stoney corals ‣ have a cneosarc which produces skeleton ‣ produce coral reefs ◦ soft corals:gorgonians= primary protein ◦ Fungia sp.= solitary coral,mushroom coral ‣ calcareous skeleton- corallite ‣ septa= ridges in the skeleton of a coral ‣ Bilateria= bilateral symmetry;evolved from selection pressure from locomotion • protostomia= blastopore became the mouth ◦ Lophotrochozoa ‣ Platyzoa- coelomate bilateria • Lophotrochozoans ◦ are named for two common characteristics: ‣ Lophopore= feeding structure with tentacles for filter feeding ‣ trochophore= also a distinct larval stage • Phylum Platyhelminthes- flat worms ◦ triploblastic= three germ layers ◦ acoelmate= the gut and other internal organs are surrounded by tissues;no body cavity ◦ protostome,organ and organ systems ◦ "acoelmate bilateral"= nickname;lacking body cavity and bilateral symmetry;except some locomotion in some members of the group ◦ why are they flat being flat minimizes distance between tissues and filling in that space comes from the mesoderm;really significant ◦ locomotion ‣ gliding in water or mucus trail- cilia on venter ‣ the worms "squiggle"- circular and longitudinal muscles • two muscle layers make this possible;contractile cells- can shorten • circular muscles-makes worm thinner • longitudinal- makes worm short and fat • work is done by the shortening ◦ Digestive System: ‣ gastrovascular cavity (usually branched),pharynx ‣ significance of branching= absorbing nutrients takes place at surface of the gut and by being highly branched there is more surface area for this to occur ‣ simple gut- no anus ◦ Excretory System- osmoregulation ‣ Protonephridrium ‣ flame cells- starts movement of water;connected to tiny little canals called ducts ‣ nephridiopores= water exits through these cells ‣ releases water to counteract the affect of osmosis ◦ Nervous System ‣ ganglia- little cluster of nerve cells ‣ cords- connected ganglia ‣ sensory structures- sense environment with • tiny little eye spots called ocellus • auricles = tiny little ears;don't hear with them but they are chemosensory so they function like a nose or a tongue;smell their food and move towards it • positive chemotaxis ◦ Regenration ‣ can be chopped up into pieces and the pieces grow back ‣ requires certain cells • neoblast- aggregate at wound site and create blastema • blastema= can grow into whatever body part is needed ◦ Reproductive System ‣ most are monoecious= have n=both sexes in one house or same time ‣ female system- starts with ovaries where eggs are produced and go to the ova duct= eggs are passed along • genital pore= open for reproduction ‣ male system- testes,then sperm move canals until they get to genetalia pore • penis or cerus ◦ ClassTurbellaria- planarians ‣ most are free living ‣ few parasitic but almost all are free living ◦ ClassTrematoda= flukes ‣ only parasites ‣ complex life cycles= two or more hosts • primary host- where sexual reproduction occurs • includes:digenetic flukes (2 hosts in life cycle) ,monogenetic flukes (fish parasites),and schistosomes (blood flukes) ‣ Example:Clonorchis sinensis- human liver fluke • Life Cycle: ◦ egg,miracidium= aquatic snail, ◦ sporocyst= first larval stage in the snail;multiple fission= can divide into a thousand in the next stage ◦ redia= capable of multiple fission ◦ cercaria=free swimming stage;extremely simple behavior;all it does is find a host which is a fish ◦ metacercaria= within the fish;bladder like structure in the fish and if you eat fish while its alive,then you get the liver fluke ◦ adult ◦ 3 hosts for entire life cycle ◦ 5 larval stages in life cycle • use bile to transport through the body • hosts:human,snail,fish ◦ Class Cestoda= tapeworms ‣ all parasites in the gut of vertebrate hosts;many using humans as their host ‣ Body of tapeworm • longitudinal chain of buds- strobila + attached to the scolex • longest tapeworm= 75 feet long ‣ get it from eating undercooked meat ‣ lives inside your gut and absorbs your nutrients ‣ so adaptive to living inside a human they don't even have their own digestive tracts ‣ microtriche- tiny hair like folding on the surface to absorb nutrients right through their skin ‣ proglittis= produced at the neck of the strobila • gravid= packages of eggs;other reproductive organs have withered away for the eggs; pregnant ‣ Example:beef tapeworm:Taenia saginata • Life Cycle: ◦ eggs in proglottid ◦ oncosphere= eggs hatch and develop into this stage ◦ cysticerci ◦ only two hosts:cow and human ◦ humans are primary host- reproductive life cycle passes through ◦ 2 larval stages ◦ cows are careful with what they eat so its easy to eat the gravid proglottid • Phylum Nemertea= proboscis worms,ribbon worms, ◦ rhynchocoel= is the cavity that houses the proboscis ◦ proboscis ◦ complete gut= mouth and anus ◦ true circulatory system= there is a blood and it travels through vessels and pumped through contractions in the vessel walls ◦ the longest animal on earth is a member of this phylum ◦ often very colorful in marine form;have fresh water species ◦ Lineus longissimus= live in crevices between rocks in the shore ‣ bootlace worm ‣ 180 feet long ◦ Prostoma graecense- local freshwater species ‣ hotdog shaped worm ‣ gut is down below and up on the dorsal side of the animal ‣ hollow proboscis= animal everts the proboscis by creating pressure and turning inside out ◦ proboscis within a rhynocoel and some use it as a harpoon ◦ free living ◦ evert their proboscis ‣ Phylum Mollusca • Nacreous layer= inside the shell;shiny • bivalves= two part hinge shells • one foot=mollusks are famous for • once they become adults they are no longer bilateral in symmetry • snails have heads nut no all mollusks do • visceral mass=thin body wall that contains all the organs ◦ digestive,circulatory,reprodutive system ◦ inside of an oyster shell ◦ contained within the shell • foot= only one foot ◦ can distinguish mollusca by the nature of the foot ◦ ancestrally a ventral,creeping sole with rippling muscle action ◦ allows animal to propel itself across surfaces ◦ or can be hatchet shaped for burrowing in clams ‣ extend,anchor,pull method ◦ or can be divided into arms like in an octopus • mantle= second body wall ◦ secretes the shell ◦ houses body and provides mantle cavity ◦ edge bear image forming eyes ◦ cells inside are capable of changing color or expanding • shell= highly calcareous ◦ 3 layers ◦ periostracum= differs in thickness and color depending on species ‣ has protein ‣ outer layer of shell ◦ prismatic layer= thickest part of shell ‣ perpendicular in prism arrangement ‣ ostracum is another name for it ◦ Nacreous Layer= what touches the body of a mollusk ‣ secrete this layer continuously to have a soft body ◦ Mantle epithelium ◦ Mantle lobes • radula= tongue like strucute that a snail would use to scrap algae off a wall ◦ a protrusible,rasping,tonguelike structure,with chitinous teeth,used to rasp or gaze periphyton • crystalline style= inside stomach ◦ a proteinaceous,rotating rod in the gut of a continuous feeder,used to twist and pull a mucus cord of food into the stomach ◦ movement of cilia causes the rod to spin • trochophore and veliger (butterfly) larval stages • Class Polyplacophora= chitons ◦ divided shell (8valves) and thick mantle allow tight grip on substrate ◦ bear many shell plates ◦ parts of the shell are known as the valves= 8 valves ◦ attached to rock and in rocky wave washed shores ◦ bodies like a suction cup to hang onto rocks ‣ very thick mantle ‣ very flexible body with a shell divided that allows them to bend upward and adhere very tightly to rocks ◦ mantle groove- gills ◦ don't have a clear head,but have a mouth and most is the foot • Class Gastropoda ◦ snails,conchs,whelks,abalone,limpets ◦ second largest group ◦ torsion during developments,coiled shell and asymmetrical body ‣ includes twisting and coiling ◦ marine,freshwater,and terrestrial mantle cavity houses gills or lungs ◦ "large ventral foot" ◦ start out as bilateral but end asymmetrical ◦ prominent head with eyes and tentacles ◦ tree snails= becoming extinct ◦ cowries= mantle extends and makes nacre on inside and outside of shell ◦ protoconch= tiny bit of shell the animal started with ◦ spire= can compare one snail shell to another ◦ opening of body whorl= aperture ◦ the ability to over aperture=operculum (flap covering opening) ◦ body whorl ◦ apple snail= common in florida peninsula;lay pink eggs ◦ violet snail= able to build for itself "bubble wrap" to float on ocean to fed on Portugease man-o-war ◦ a trend of shell reduction in terrestrial slugs ◦ trend of sea hair called nudibranchs in marine snails • Class Cephalopoda ◦ squid,octopus,nautilus ◦ foot divided into 8 arms or 8 arms and two tentacles ◦ mantle forms the body tube ◦ squid- master of color change ‣ typically 8 arms and 2 tentacles ‣ change color to match background or to give messages (mating) ‣ giant squid- largest of all invertebrates • leave in the deep ocean • eye of animals id bigger then our head ‣ Vampire squid= red • live where there is no oxygen and light • don't move alot to conserve energy • open "cape" to get prey • bioluminescence ◦ Chambered Nautilus ‣ only shelled members of this class ‣ controls buoyancy ‣ coiled shel but animal does not undergo torsion • Class Bivalvia= largest class ◦ clams,mussels,oysters,scallops ◦ 2-part hinged shell ◦ mantle forms siphons= opening for water to flow in/out ◦ ciliated gills accomplish water flow,respiration,filter feeding and more ◦ a line of symmetry runs between the valves ◦ cilia moves and creates water flow which brings food in and waste out and distributes their gametes ◦ brings oxygen in and CO2 out ◦ most inside of the shell is called the visceral mass ◦ incurrent and excurrent siphons ◦ giant clam= symbiotic algae live within the mantle tissue ‣ weigh about a ton ◦ oysters ‣ sessile attaching to substrate and one another with their shells ‣ one shell is smaller than the other ‣ reduced foot ‣ pearls may form in the nacreous layer ◦ scallops ‣ swim rapidly opening and closing of their shell ‣ one large adductor muscle ‣ eyes on mantle edge ◦ mussels ‣ form a byssus ‣ byssal threads are the stuff of the mythical cloth of gold ◦ Clams ‣ have a burrowing foot ‣ their siphons may be very long • Organism of the day: ◦ Omyctolagus caniculus- European Rabbit ‣ a vigilant herbivore ‣ how to draw a bunny face • pinna (ae)- better to hear • virbrissae- very sensory,can tell if a holes too small to fit in • philtrum- slit in lip,allows the bunny to move her upper lips like two fingers

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Textbook: University Physics with Modern Physics (1)
Edition: 14
Author: Hugh D. Young Roger A. Freedman
ISBN: 9780321973610

This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 44 chapters, and 4574 solutions. Since the solution to 6.62 from 6 chapter was answered, more than 243 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 6.62 from chapter: 6 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 01/09/18, 07:46PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: University Physics with Modern Physics (1), edition: 14. The answer to “While hovering, a typical flying insect applies an average force equal to twice its weight during each downward stroke. Take the mass of the insect to be 10 g, and assume the wings move an average downward distance of 1.0 cm during each stroke. Assuming 100 downward strokes per second, estimate the average power output of the insect.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 58 words. University Physics with Modern Physics (1) was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321973610.

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While hovering, a typical flying insect applies an average