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Answer: A ring-shaped conductor with radius a = 2.50 cm

University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780321973610 | Authors: Hugh D. Young Roger A. Freedman ISBN: 9780321973610 228

Solution for problem 21.51 Chapter 21

University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition

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University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition | ISBN: 9780321973610 | Authors: Hugh D. Young Roger A. Freedman

University Physics with Modern Physics (1) | 14th Edition

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Problem 21.51

A ring-shaped conductor with radius a = 2.50 cm has a total positive charge Q = +0.125 nC uniformly distributed around it (see Fig. 21.23). The center of the ring is at the origin of coordinates O. (a) What is the electric field (magnitude and direction) at point P, which is on the x-axis at x = 40.0 cm? (b) A point charge q = -2.50 mC is placed at P. What are the magnitude and direction of the force exerted by the charge q on the ring?

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Week 2 Bio Notes 4/4  Ch 34: Vertebrates  Half a billion years of backbones  One type of animal gave rise to vertebrates, one of the most successful groups of animals  Vertebrates get their name from the series of bones that make up the backbone  One lineage of vertebrates colonized land 365 million years ago  More than 57,000 species of vertebrates  Chordates are bilaterian animals that belong to the clade of animals known as Deuterostomia  Chordates comprise all vertebrates and two groups of invertebrates  All chordates share a set of derived characters  Some species have some of these traits only during embryonic development  4 key characters of chordates o Notochord o Dorsal, hollow nerve chord o Pharyngeal slits or clefts o Muscular, post­anal tail  Notochord is a longitudinal, flexible rod between the digestive tube and nerve chord  It provides skeletal support throughout most of the length of a chordate  In most vertebrates, a more complex, jointed skeleton develops and the adult retains only remnants of the embryonic notochord  The nerve cord of a chordate develops from a plate of ectoderm  Brain and the spinal cord  Pharyngeal clefts develop into slits that open to the outside of the body  Lancelets are named for their bladelike shape  Marine suspension feeders  Tunicates “sea squirts” are bottom feeders and more closely related to other chordates  Have fewer Hox genes than other vertebrates  Vertebrates are chordates that have a backbone  A skeletal system and complex nervous system have allowed vertebrates efficiency at two essential tasks o Capturing food o Evading predators  Following derived characters o Enclosing spinal cord o Elaborate skull o Fin rays, in the aquatic forms  Two lineages of jawless vertebrates: hagfishes and lampreys  Conodonts among the earliest vertebrates 500­200 million years ago  Mineralization appears to have originated with vertebrate mouthparts  Jawed vertebrates outnumber the jawless vertebrates 4/6  Lobe­fins originated in the Silurian period  3 lineages include coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods  Coelacanths were thought to be extinct 75 million years ago but one was found in 1938  Lungfishes have gills but can go to the surface and gulp air  Tetrapods adapted to life on land  Tiktaalik (fishapod) shows both fish and tetrapod characteristics  Couldnt walk but could prop itself up  First tetrapods showed up around 365 million years ago  Amphibians o Urodela o Anura o Apoda  Salamanders are amphibians with tails  Some are aquatic but others live on land  Paedomorphosis, the retention of juvenile features in sexually mature organisms, is common in aquatic species  Caecilians are legless, nearly blind, and resemble earthworms  Absence of legs is a secondary adaptation  External fertilization  Amphibian population declining because of chytrid fungus  Amniotes = tetrapods whose living members are the reptiles (including birds and mammals)  Major derived character of the clade, the amniotic egg, which contains the membranes that protect the embryo  The extraembryonic membranes are the amnion, chorion, yolk sac, and allantois  Amniotic egg =key adaptation to life on land  Amniotic eggs of most reptiles and some mammals have a shell  Amniotes have other terrestrial adaptations, such as relatively impermeable skin and the ability to use the rib cage to ventilate the lungs  Earliest amniotes probably looked like lizards  Most reptiles lay shelled eggs on land  Most reptiles are ectothermic, absorbing external heat as the main source of body heat  Regulate their body temp through behavioral adaptations  Birds are endothermic, makes their own body heat through metabolism  Diapids consisted of two main lineages: the lepidosaurs and the archosaurs  Lepidosaurs include tuataras, lizards, snakes, and extinct mosasaurs  The archosaur lineage produced the crocodilians, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs  Pterosaurs were the first tetrapods to exhibit flight  The phylogenetic position of turtles remains uncertain  All turtles have a boxlike shell made of upper and lower shields that are fused to the vertebrae, clavicles, and ribs  Some turtles have adapted to deserts and others live entirely in ponds and rivers  The largest turtles live in the sea  Many species of sea turtles are endangered by accidental capture in fishing nets or development of beaches where they lay eggs  One surviving lineage of lepidosaurs is represented by two species called tuataras  Tuataras are restricted are restricted to small islands off the coast of New Zealand  They are threatened by introduced rats, which consume their eggs  Other living lineage of lepidosaurs consists of the squamates, the lizards and snakes  Squamates are the most numerous and diverse reptiles, apart from birds  Snakes are carnivorous and have adaptation to aid in capture and consumption of prey including o Chemical sensors o Heat­detecting organs o Venom o Loosely articulated jawbones and elastic skin  Crocodilians belong to the archosaur lineage  Birds are archosaurs but almost every feature of their reptilian anatomy has undergone modification in their adaptation to flight  Many characters of birds are adaptations that facilitate flight  Wings with keratin feathers  Flight enhances hunting and scavenging  Oldest bird known is Archaeopteryx  Bird species can be distinguished by characters including profile, color, flying, style, behavior, beak shape, and foot structure  Mammals, class mammalia, are represented by more than 5300 species  Mammals have o Mammary glands, which produce milk o Hair o A high metabolic rate, due to endothermy o A larger brain than other vertebrates of equivalent size o Differentiated teeth  Mammals are synapsids  In the evolution of mammals from early synapsids, two bones that formerly made up the jaw joint were incorporated into the mammalian middle ear  3 living lineages: Monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians  Didn’t undergo a significant adaptive radiation until after the Cretaceous

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Chapter 21, Problem 21.51 is Solved
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Textbook: University Physics with Modern Physics (1)
Edition: 14
Author: Hugh D. Young Roger A. Freedman
ISBN: 9780321973610

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Answer: A ring-shaped conductor with radius a = 2.50 cm