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A 1 200-kg car traveling initially at vCi 5 25.0 m/s in an

Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9781133954057 | Authors: Raymond A. Serway John W. Jewett ISBN: 9781133954057 230

Solution for problem 22 Chapter 9

Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics | 9th Edition

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Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9781133954057 | Authors: Raymond A. Serway John W. Jewett

Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics | 9th Edition

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Problem 22

A 1 200-kg car traveling initially at vCi 5 25.0 m/s in an easterly direction crashes into the back of a 9 000-kg truck moving in the same direction at vTi 5 20.0 m/s (Fig. P9.22). The velocity of the car immediately after the collision is vCf 5 18.0 m/s to the east. (a) What is the velocity of the truck immediately after the collision? (b) What is the change in mechanical energy of the cartruck system in the collision? (c) Account for this change in mechanical energy.

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PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Chapter 6 CNS Stimulants Overview • S▯mulants-Substancesthatkeepaperson"going"mentally&physically • Cocaine&amphetaminerestricteds▯mulants: ◦ Originatefromplants ◦ Moresimilarthandifferent ◦ Alikeinsubjec▯veeffects,toxici▯es,pa▯ernsofabuse,tolerance,&dependence • Produceheightenedawareness • Decreasesleep&appe▯te • Increasemotorac▯vity • Highintake=psychosis ◦ Importantdifferenceinoralavailability&dura▯onofac▯on • Amphetaminesorallyswallowed&lastlonger History Cocaine • Coca:bushprimarilygrowingintheAndes ◦ Harvestedforthousandsofyears ◦ Ac▯velycul▯vatedforover800years • Na▯veworkerschewleavesforaboostthesamewaywedrinkcoffeefors▯mula▯on ◦ ImportantpartoftheIncaculture se i no me r ec suo i g i l e r n i de ◦sU ◦ Usedascurrency • Colonizing/se▯lingSpaniards: ◦ Disgustedbychewingprac▯ce ◦ Triedtotakeitaway ◦ Realizeditwasthebackboneoftheeconomy&labor ◦ Letworkerskeepchewingittomaintainproduc▯on&miningofgold,etc. • 1800sscien▯stsstartedtostudyplant&medicinaleffects ◦ Putextractsintoproductslikepatentmedicines,teas,cocacola,lozenges,wine,etc. ◦ CocaWine • AngeloMariani • Frenchchemist,developedwinew/cocaleafextract • Indirectlyintroducedcocaleaftothegeneralpublic ◦ Con▯nuestoserveasanimportantmedica▯on • Schedule2substanceb/cithasmedicinaluse • 1860Anesthe▯cusediscoveredbyden▯stDr.W.S.Halsted ▪ Notusedmedicallyun▯l1884 ▪ Usedaslocalanesthesia(injectedintogums) ▪ 1905Novocain-Synthe▯cdrugmodeleda▯ercocainew/similar proper▯es • Cheapertomanufacture,doesn'tcomefromplant,easierto control,doesn'tproduce"high" ▪ Synthesizeddrugshavelargelyreplacedcocaineformedicaluse 1 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Verypopulardruginlate1800s • SherlockHolmesstorieshighlightedposi▯ve&nega▯vepsychologicaleffects • EarlypsychiatricusebyFreud ◦ Usedcocaineastreatmentfordepression&morphinedependence ◦ Wroteextensivelyaboutstudiesonuse ◦ Laterincareeropposedusea▯ernursingafriendthrucocainepsychosis • 1980susedfrequentlybyathletes • Legalcontrolsoncocaine: ◦ 1887-191446statespassedlawsregula▯nguse/distribu▯on ◦ Useincreasedatendof1960s ◦ 1914HarrisonAct • Taxedimporta▯on/saleofcoca&opium ◦ Rela▯velyexpensive,useassociatedw/status,wealth,&fame ◦ Supplywasinsuchsurplusmanufacturersdidn'tknowwhattodow/it • 1986An▯-DrugAbuseAct ◦ Powdercocaineismoreexpensive&consumedtypicallybywhiteupperclass ◦ Crackcocaineissoldatcheaperprices&reacheslowerincomepopula▯onsincluding oppressedAfricanAmericanneighborhoods ◦ Lawtargetedcrackcocainedealers&manufacturers(lowerclass,lesswealthy) ◦ 100:1quan▯tyra▯obtwnamountsofpowder&crackcocaineneededtotrigger mandatoryminimumtraffickingsentences • Basicallypunishescrackdealers/usersbutnotcokeusers/dealers ◦ Lawrevised2yrslatertoapplytopossessionofjust5gramsofcrack ◦ Basicallypunishesprimarilylowerincomepopula▯ons&doesn'treallyaddressuseof cokebywealthypopula▯on ◦ Ra▯oreducedto18:1in2010 Amphetamines • Chineseusedmedicinalteamadefromephedra/MaHuangherb ◦ Ac▯veingredient=ephedrine(sympathomime▯cdrugusedintrea▯ngasthma) • Ephedrineisasympathomime▯cdrug ◦ S▯mulatessympathe▯cbranchofautonomicnervoussystem • Amphetamine ◦ Newsynthesizedchemicalsimilartoephedrine 2391 n i de t ne t◦aP • Amphetamineusedmedically: ◦ Asthma-dilatorofnasal&bronchialpassages ◦ Narcolepsy-disorderwherebrainisover-excited&preparesitselftofallasleep/shut down ◦ Hyperac▯vityinchildren ◦ Appe▯tesuppressant ◦ S▯mulant • History: ◦ UsebysoldiersinWW2tofightfa▯gue • Addic▯onremainedwhentheycamehome ◦ 1920s&30s:Amphetamines(cocaine)+heroininjectedtogether=speedball s06 ◦1 2 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Moststreetamphetaminescamefromprescrip▯ons • "Speedscene"=a▯me&placeinwhichpplused&becamedependenton intravenousamphetamine • Liquidmethamphetaminesformerlyusedass▯mulanttreatmentforge▯ng pa▯entswhoOdedonsleepingpillstobreatheagain ◦ Amphetaminesbecamemore▯ghtlycontrolled • 1970srestric▯onspassedtolimitmanufacture • Manylook-alikesappeared • Someusersswitchedbacktococaine • Illicitmanufactureofmethamphetaminegrew Marke▯ng Crack • Inexpensiveformofsmokablecocainebecameavailable 01$ - ◦5 $ ◦ Getsyouhighmuchfaster ◦ Muchhigherpoten▯alforabuse • Legalcontrols ◦ Media&poli▯ciansfocusedoncrackuseamongurbanblackppl • Associatedw/violence&dependency • Coke&Marijuana: ◦ Reaganpresidency&Bushvicepresidency • Focusedonlimi▯ng/controlinfluxofmarijuanabysmugglers • Smugglersshi▯edtoimpor▯ngcocaine ▪ Governmentindirectlycontributedtogrowthofcocaineimporta▯on& cheaperformslikecrack ◦ An▯-drugabuseactsof1986&1988 • Penal▯esforsaleofcrackcocainesignificantlymoreseverethanpenal▯esfor pwdercocaine • Tougherpenal▯esforfirst▯meusersofcrack • Dispropor▯onatelyaffectsblackcommunity Amphetamines • Limitedamphetamineavailabilityincreased#ofillicitlaboratoriesmakingmethamphetamine • Manufactureofmethisdangerous&associatedw/toxicfumes&residue ◦ Iceorcrystalmeth ◦ Smokable • AbusebeganinwesternUS&nowspreadeast • Nowconsideredaclubdrug • Abusemainlyremainsconcentratedinmid-westUS • Beneficialuses: ◦ Weightcontrol • Widelyusedtoreducefoodintake&bodyweight • Effectreal,butsmall • Combina▯onoffenfluramine&phentermineassociatedw/heartvalvedamage &lungdiseaseinsomeindividuals ◦ Narcolepsy • S▯mulantskeeppa▯entsawakeduringday • Newerdrugmodafinil(Provigil)promoteswakefulness 3 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Increasesac▯vityofnorepinephrine&dopamine • Lowabusepoten▯al • Doesn'tinducetolerance ◦ ADHD • S▯mulantmedica▯onscanreversecatecholamine-associateddeficitsunderlying ADHD • Sideeffects&concernsleadtouseofothertreatmentsforADHDbeingstudied • Longitudinalstudiessuggestmajorityofchildren/adolescentsw/ADHDdisplay symptomsintoadulthood • Manifesta▯onofsymptomschangeover▯me ◦ Treatmentop▯onsinADHD: • Psychoeduca▯onforpa▯ent&familymembers ▪ Supportgroups ▪ Coaching • Behavioral ▪ Psychotherapy ▪ Cogni▯vebehavioraltherapy • Pharmacologic ▪ Pharmacotherapeu▯cinterven▯ons ▪ S▯mulants ▪ Non-s▯mulants ▪ Treatmenttypicallyrequiresmul▯modalapproachtailoredtomeetneeds oftheindividual ◦ Some▯mesusedasadjunc▯vetherapyfordepression ◦ An▯depressanteffectsworkwithindays Names&Forms/Manufacture FormsofCocaine • Leaves ◦ Slowabsorp▯on ◦ Slowonsetofeffects ◦ 45-60minun▯lfeelingeffects • CocaPaste ◦ Crudeextractcreatedduringmanufactureofcocaine ◦ Cocaleavesmixedw/organicsolvent(keroseneorgasoline) ◦ Soaked/mixed/mashed&thenexcessliquidfilteredouttoformcocapaste deko ms y l no m◦oC • Rapid&briefeffects(peak1.5min) • CocaineHydrochloride ◦ Mostcommonform ◦ Stablewater-solublesalt ◦ Typicallyintra-nasaluse • Snor▯ng • Rapidabsorp▯on • Upto15minun▯lonsetofeffects ◦ Canbeinjected • Rapid&briefeffects(peak3min) 4 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Canbeusedtopically(rubbingongums,numbingeffect) • Freebase/CrackRock ◦ Lumpsofdriedsmokablecocaine ◦ Producedbymixingcocainew/bakingsoda&water Amphetamines • Methylphenidate(Ritalin) ◦ Oneoftheoldestofthes▯mulantmedica▯onsusedinthetreatmentofa▯en▯on& concentra▯onproblems ◦ Generallywelltolerated&workswelltoincreaseconcentra▯on&a▯en▯onwhile decreasinghyperac▯vity ◦ Worksabout80%ofthe▯metoreduceupto80%ofthesymptomsapersonis experiencing ◦ Sideeffects: • Decreasedappe▯te,decrease/disturbanceofsleep,some▯mesheadaches& gastrointes▯nalpains • At▯mesmotororvocal▯csemerge • Problemsw/moodinstability&irritability • Overdose:psycho▯csymptomsordelirium ◦ Problemscanalsoarisefromshorthalf-life • CrystalMeth ◦ Madefromhouseholdproducts ◦ OTCmedica▯onpseudoephedrinemixedw/iodine,phosphorus,organicsolvents,drano, paintthinner,an▯freeze,etc. • Mixedamphetaminesalts ◦ Availableformanyyearsintreatmentofa▯en▯on&concentra▯onformanyyears ◦ CurrentlyavailableofAdderall&AdderallXR MechanismofAc▯on Cocaine • Bindsdifferen▯allytodopamine,serotonin,&norepinephrineproteins • BindstoDAT1transporter,inhibi▯ngreuptakew/moreefficacythanmethamphetamines ◦ Directlypreventsre-uptakeofdopamine,serotonin,&norepinephrineintopre-synap▯c neurons • Inhibi▯onofre-uptakesubsequentlyelevatessynap▯cconcentra▯onsofeachofthese neurotransmi▯ers ◦ Prolongseffectsoftheseneurotransmi▯ers ◦ Alsoproducesnumberofindirectac▯ons • Alterotherneuromodulatorysystems • Opiodergic,glutamatergic,GABAergicsystems • **Behavioraleffectsbaseduponinterac▯onofmul▯pleneurotransmi▯ers ◦ Somemaybeallergic&dieonfirst-▯meuse ◦ Inconsump▯onw/alcohol,combineinthelivertoformcocaethylene-more euphorigenic&higherCVtoxicity • Absorp▯on: ◦ Chewing/suckingleaves-slowabsorp▯onthrumucousmembranes ◦ Snor▯ngpowder-rapidabsorp▯onintothebrain ◦ Intravenousinjec▯on-rapid/briefonset,highconcentra▯oninthebrain 5 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Smokingcrack-equallyfastonsetofeffects • Ac▯on: ◦ Cocainemoleculesmetabolizedbyenzymesinblood&liver • Elimina▯on: ◦ Metabolizedbyenzymesintheblood&liver ◦ Half-lifeof~anhour • Considerablevariabilitydependingonmethodofadministra▯on Amphetamines • Chemicalstructuresimilartocatecholamineneurotransmi▯ers ◦ Lessthan15%ofusersbecomeaddicted • Structureallowsittomoreeasilycrossblood-brainbarrier ◦ Structurallysimilartomoleculesofdopamine&norepinephrine(catecholamine neurotransmi▯ers) ◦ Ephedrine&PPAlessabletocrossbarrier&producemoreperipheralthancentral nervoussystemeffects • Causesincreasedac▯vityofmonoamineneurotransmi▯ers(dopamine,norepinephrine, serotonin)bys▯mula▯ngtheirrelease • Amphetaminescauseanincreaseinsynap▯cdopaminelevelsthru2mechanisms: 1. Amphetaminesexpeldopaminefromtheneuronthrudopaminemembrane transporters • S▯mulaterelease • Causeareversalinthedirec▯onofthedopaminetransporter 2. @highdosesamphetaminespreventdopaminestorage • Enterdopaminestoragevesiclesthruvesiculartransporter&displacedopamine fromthevesicle • S▯mula▯onofdopaminepathwayscreateeuphoria&increasemotorac▯vity • Increaseddosesproducerepe▯▯vemovementsthatcouldleadtopsycho▯c reac▯ons • Absorp▯on: ◦ Consumedorally,intranasally,intravenously,&thrusmoking ◦ Peakeffects: • 1.5hoursa▯eroralinges▯on • 15-30minutesa▯erintranasaladministra▯on • 5-10minutesfollowinginjec▯on,intranasal,orsmoking • Half-life: ◦ 10-12hrsforamphetamine ◦ 4-5hrsformethamphetamine • Rapidtolerance(tachyphylaxis)canoccura▯erhighdoses Harms Cocaine • AcutecocainetoxicitycausesprofoundCNSs▯mula▯on ◦ Canleadtoconvulsions,respiratoryorcardiacarrest • Significantindividualvaria▯onintheuptake&metabolismofcocaine ◦ Difficulttoes▯matesizeofalethaldose • Rare,severe,unpredictablereac▯onscancausecardiacfailure se i g r e l◦lA • Risksofregularlysnor▯ng: 6 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Damagetonasalseptum • Suscep▯bilitytoinfec▯on • Mayerodeaholebtwnseptalpassages ◦ Paranoidpsychosis • O▯enresultsfromnotsleeping • Irritability,restlessness,paranoia ◦ Damagetoheartmuscle • Reproduc▯veeffects: ◦ Suppressesappe▯te,willeffectnutri▯onofmother&baby • Infantwillnotdevelopproperly ◦ Increasedriskofmiscarriage&tornplacenta • "CrackBaby"phenomenon ◦ Babiesbornw/severedevelopmentalabnormali▯es ◦ Moreduetoinsufficiencyofnutri▯onthandirectcontactw/cocaine ◦ Studies: • Longitudinalstudyfollowing"crackbabies"&re-assessingthemevery5years • Individuals/adults30yearslaterseemtohave"caughtup" • Nowfunc▯onmoreorlesstypically • Cocaine&alcohol ◦ Combina▯oninthebodyformscocaethylene ◦ Showntobemoretoxicthancocaineinmice ◦ Tholesspotentthancocaineinhumans CrystalMeth • Ini▯aleffectspleasurabletomanyusers ◦ Euphoria,confidence,wakefulness • Ini▯alhighbloodsbrainw/dopamine,feelsverypleasurable,usecon▯nuesdespiteseverityof nega▯veconsequences • Nega▯veeffectsinclude: s sens se l pee l s f o sdo i r ep dedne t◦xE ◦ Paranoia,anxiety,agita▯on ◦ Violentmoodswings ◦ IncreasedHR&BP • Acutetoxicity: ◦ Increasesinfeelingsofpower,suspicion,paranoia ◦ Poten▯alriskofviolentbehavior • Veryhighdosesmaydestroycatecholamineneurons • Contaminantsformedduringmanufactureofillicitmethamphetaminemayhavetoxiceffectson braincells • Understudy:RiskofdevelopingmovementdisorderslikeParkinson'sdisease • Highdoseuse: ◦ Higherriskamongthosewhoinject ◦ Compulsive&repe▯▯vestereotypedac▯ons • I.E.Spendinganightcoun▯ngcornflakes • Chronictoxicity: ◦ Developmentofparanoidpsychosis Dependence&Treatment 7 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Cocaine Chronictoxicity/Dependence • Animal&humanstudiesshowitisapowerfullyreinforcingdrug ◦ Animalswillreadilyself-administerthedrugbylever-pressing • A▯erbingeuse,manyexperiencewithdrawalsymptoms: ◦ Craving,irritability,anxiety,depressedmood,increasedappe▯te,fa▯gue 3mainwithdrawalstages: 1. Crash ◦ Ini▯alabs▯nencea▯erbingeconsis▯ngofdepression,agita▯on,suicidalthoughts, fa▯gue 2. Withdrawal ◦ Moodswings,craving,anhedonia,obsessionw/drug-seeking .xEn ◦ Normalpleasurereturns,cuestriggercraving&moodswings Treatment • Medica▯ons ◦ Beta-andrenergicblockingdrugsforirregularheartrate&bloodpressure gurd c▯ohc y sp - ▯ ◦A halperidolcontrolspsycho▯csymptoms ◦ An▯-depressantdrugdespraminehelpspromoteabs▯nence • BehavioralApproaches ◦ Con▯ngencyapproaches ◦ Relapsepreven▯on ◦ Groupsupport Amphetamines • Dependence ◦ O▯ennoobviouswithdrawalsymptoms ◦ Producepsychologicaldependence ◦ CapableofproducingdependenceasdefinedbyDSMcriteria ◦ Potentreinforcer CurrentUse&FutureTrends • Surveysindicate~1%ofadultscurrentlyusecocaine(2012data) ◦ Downfrompeakof12%inthe1980s • Usageratesofcocaine&amphetaminetendtocycleinopposi▯ontoeachother ◦ Whencocaineusedecreases,amphetamineusemayincrease • LenBias ◦ 22y/oldcollegebasketballplayer ◦ Dra▯edtotheNBA ◦ Diedfromtryingcokehisfirst▯me,probablyhadallergies ◦ Followed8dayslaterbycoke-relateddeathofClevelandBrownsplayerDonRogers Amphetamines • Nonmedicalusepopularoncollegecampuses • Prevalenceratesamongcollegestudentsrange5.3%to34% • Forpurposesotherthandescribed: ◦ Diversion,recrea▯onaluse,illicituse,misuse,abuse • Growingproblemoncollegecampuses • Mainmo▯va▯ngreasonsformisusingprescrip▯ons▯mulants: 8 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Improveacademicperformance ◦ Helpw/concentra▯on&focusing ◦ Improvetestperformance ◦ Recrea▯onalpurposes 9

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Chapter 9, Problem 22 is Solved
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Textbook: Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics
Edition: 9
Author: Raymond A. Serway John W. Jewett
ISBN: 9781133954057

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, edition: 9. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 22 from chapter: 9 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 01/09/18, 08:01PM. The answer to “A 1 200-kg car traveling initially at vCi 5 25.0 m/s in an easterly direction crashes into the back of a 9 000-kg truck moving in the same direction at vTi 5 20.0 m/s (Fig. P9.22). The velocity of the car immediately after the collision is vCf 5 18.0 m/s to the east. (a) What is the velocity of the truck immediately after the collision? (b) What is the change in mechanical energy of the cartruck system in the collision? (c) Account for this change in mechanical energy.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 88 words. Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781133954057. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 46 chapters, and 3681 solutions. Since the solution to 22 from 9 chapter was answered, more than 498 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer.

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A 1 200-kg car traveling initially at vCi 5 25.0 m/s in an