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Spring Motion The height attained by a weight attached to

Trigonometry | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780321671776 | Authors: Margaret L. Lial, John Hornsby, David I. Schneider, Callie Daniels ISBN: 9780321671776 231

Solution for problem 12 Chapter 4.5

Trigonometry | 10th Edition

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Trigonometry | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780321671776 | Authors: Margaret L. Lial, John Hornsby, David I. Schneider, Callie Daniels

Trigonometry | 10th Edition

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Problem 12

Spring Motion The height attained by a weight attached to a spring set in motion is s1t2 = -4 cos 8pt inches after t seconds. (a) Find the maximum height that the weight rises above the equilibrium position of s(t) = 0. (b) When does the weight first reach its maximum height if t 0? (c) What are the frequency and the period?

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Aneeqa Akhtar April 18 , 2016 Chapter 15: Personality Continued  Four Big Theories of Personality  Psychoanalytic Theory: devised by Sigmund Freud o Stages of Psychosexual Development  Patients’ symptoms rooted in conflicts from childhood  Id’s pleasure-seeking energies focused on different parts of the body (erogenous zones) – the original sources of pleasure and id gratification  Psychosexual stages are universal  Erogenous zones: parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure-giving qualities at particular stages  Caregivers are crucial to negotiating children through stages o Fixation: individual is “locked” in a stage because needs are under- or overgratified o Anal stage: how parents handle potty-trained shapes personality  Child shamed for making mess o The Story of Oedipus / Oedipus Complex  During phallic stage (3-6 years old), boys develop unconscious sexual desires for mother, jealousy and hatred of father (rival) o Feelings of guilt, fear of punishment (anxiety)  Castration anxiety = fear of being castrated by father for desiring mom, and becoming like a female  Reduced through identification with same-sex parent  If unresolved, develops into personality that is vain, aggressive, and ambitious to a fault  Girls -> Electra Complex o A girl’s feelings of inferiority and jealousy (anxiety) o Penis envy: anger, regret over being female  Freud: we marry people like our opposite sex parent o It’s all about anxiety  Tension between hedonistic id and conscious/superego = personality o Giving into id produces negative consequences o Ego tries to find outlets but can be thwarted o The result is generalized anxiety and unease  Defense mechanism: method of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality o Repression: forcibly blocking unacceptable thoughts from conscious mind…reduces anxiety  Ex: pain of childbirth o Projection: disguise own threatening impulses by attributing them to others o Reaction formation: unconsciously switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites  Ex: homosexual man having heterosexual affairs or making anti-gay comments o Sublimation: redirecting psychic energy away from negative outlets, toward positive outlets Aneeqa Akhtar April 18 , 2016  Ex: art, music o Denial: person refuses to recognize reality o Displacement: substituting a less threatening object for the original object of impulse. o Rationalization: substituting socially acceptable reasons o Psychoanalysis; technique of treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions  Freud sought to explain what he observed during psychoanalysis  Free association: method of exploring the unconscious o Person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing o Projective Personality Tests: test using ambiguous stimuli to elicit projection of inner conflicts o Object-Relations Theories: emphasizes real (as opposed to fantasized) relations with others  Socio-Cognitive Theory: o Each person has a unique personality because of our personal histories o Personal events and how we interpret them shape our personalities o Derived from behaviorism and empirical findings  Includes cognitive processes shaped by conditioning forces  Individual’s perspective of the world o One example: Locus of Control (Rotter)  Emphasizes a person’s internal or external focus as a major determinant of personality  Internal locus of control: o Life outcomes are under personal control o Positively correlated with self-esteem (elderly) o Internals use more problem-focused coping  External locus of control: o Luck, chance o Also, Cognitive-Affective Personality System (Mischel)  Five key individual difference that make up our differing personalities  1) Encoding and construals o How we make sense of the world around us  2) expectancies and beliefs o Outcome expectations and self-efficacy  Humanistic Theory o Humanistic personality theories reject psychoanalytic notions and learning theory as “dehumanizing”  We are not a slave to our urges and to conditioning but active determinants of who we are and want to be  Humans at the center of the theory, not outside forces o Views each person as basically good and that people are striving for self-fulfillment o Argues that people carry a perception of themselves and the world Aneeqa Akhtar th April 18 , 2016 o Carl Rogers and Self-theory  We act in a manner that is consistent with or self-schema: our core conception of ourselves o People with low self-esteem generally have poor congruence between their self-schemas and life experiences o Self-esteem: relative balance of positive and negative self-judgement  Actual vs Possible Selves o Motivated to narrow the distance between the two Aneeqa Akhtar April 20 , 2016 Chapter 16: Psychopathology  Psychopathology: the study of abnormal thoughts, behaviors, and feelings  Psycho = mind  Pathology = disease  Insanity: a legal term, refers to an inability to manage one’s affairs or to be unaware of the consequences of one’s actions  Those judged insane by a court of law are not held legally accountable for their actions  Can be involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital  Normality: takes into account three things  1) Subjective Discomfort o Feelings of discomfort, unhappiness, or emotional distress  2) Socially Abnormal o Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self- destructive behavior o Walking around naked is not normal, unless you are in a locker room o Situational Context: social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstances in which behavior takes place o Cultural Relativity: judgements are made relative to the value of one’s culture (i.e. talking to spirits in Native American culture)  3) Statistically Abnormal o Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression. o Not all statistically abnormal behavior is considered abnormal: super athletic, musical, or intellectual tendencies.  When does abnormal become psychopathology The 3 D’s:  1) Deviant: statistically vs socially abnormal (violation of social norms)  2) Distressing: to either (or both) yourself or others  3) Dysfunctional: maladaptive, impairs daily functions  Clinical Assessment: a systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors.  Gathering information about the way a person thinks, feels, and behaves in order to form a judgement about that person  Types of assessments: interviews (structured/unstructured), physical exams, observations, clinical/psychological tests  Diagnosis: the degree of fit between symptoms and predefined criteria  Purposes: o Helps treatment planning o Understand prognosis o Guide research  Multi-Axial System of DSM-IV  DSM-IV -> American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; widely used system for classifying psychological disorders  Five axis of diagnosis Aneeqa Akhtar April 20 , 2016 o Axis I – Major disorders (depression, anxiety, SCZ, etc.) o Axis II – stable, enduring problems (personality disorders, intellectual impairment) o Axis III – related medical conditions (ex. brain injury, hypertension) o Axis IV – psychosocial and environmental problems (unemployment) o Axis V – global assessment of functioning (0-100)  Medical Model  Concept that diseases have physical causes  Can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured  Assumes that these “mental” illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital  Bio-psycho-social Perspective  Assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.  Integrative Explanation  Biopsychosocial model is currently most comprehensive approach  Diathesis-stress model  Diathesis = predisposition, stress = environmental triggers  Anxiety Disorders  Generalized Anxiety Disorder: client is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal o Social anxiety: symptoms occur in social setting, fear of scrutiny, public humiliation/embarrassment  Panic Disorder: marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation  Phobia: persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. o Marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable, cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation; can induce panic o Most common phobias: blood/injections, animals (snake, mice, roaches), flying, claustrophobia  Treating Anxiety Disorders  Cognitive Therapy: teaching the patient to recognize cognitive triggers and change them o Panic example  Exposure Therapy: gradually increase the patient’s exposure to the source of anxiety o A behavioral approach – uses habituation, conditioning o Example of treating a flying phobia  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  What are obsessions o Persistent, intrusive, and distressing thoughts, impulses, or images o Paired with increase in anxiety o Most common: contamination, hurting others, need for symmetry  What are compulsions o Repetitive, ritualistic behaviors or mental acts Aneeqa Akhtar April 20 , 2016 o The person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly o The compulsions are performed to prevent or “undo” some dreaded outcome  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  Exposure to a traumatic event that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. During event, the person felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror.  Traumatic event is persistently re-experienced, through recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress when confronted with a “trigger”.  Persistent symptoms of increased arousal, such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, irritability or outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, or an exaggerated startle response.  Mood Disorders: characterized by emotional extremes  Major Depressive Disorder: a mood disorder in which a person experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities o At least of 5 of the below, for at least 2 weeks. Must have one of the first 2 symptoms listed  Depressed mood most of the day  Diminished interest or pleasure in activities most of the day  Significant appetite/weight changes  Sleep problems  Psychomotor agitation or retardation  Fatigue, loss of energy  Feelings of worthlessness, intense inappropriate guilt  Unable to concentrate or make decisions  Recurrent thought of death, suicidal ideation, or suicide attempt  Mania: a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state  Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity  Decreased need for sleep  Talkative, pressured speech  Flight of ideas, racing thoughts  Distractible  Bipolar Disorder  A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania  Formerly called manic-depressive disorder  Dissociative Disorders: conscious awareness become separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings  Schizophrenia: literal transition “split mind”  A group of severe psychotic disorders characterized by: o Disorganized and delusional thinking Aneeqa Akhtar April 20 , 2016 o Disturbed perceptions o Inappropriate emotions and actions  Common Misconceptions o Schizophrenia is NOT dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder). This is EXTREMELY rare, despite what you may see on shows. o Schizophrenias DO NOT tend to be violent toward themselves or others o Not all cases are chronic o Symptoms:  Positive Symptoms: o The presence of something that is normally absent (ex. Hallucination, delusions) o Delusions o False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders o Hallucinations o False sensory experiences such as seeing something without any external visual stimulus  Negative Symptoms: o The absence of something that is normally present (lack of affect, social withdrawal) o Psychomotor symptoms o Disturbances in movement o Poverty of speech o Blunted affect o Loss of violation o Social withdrawal  Schizophrenia Associated Features: o Depression and/or anxiety o Anhedonia: loss of interest or pleasure o Disturbance in sleeping and eating patterns o Inability to concentrate o Lack of insight  Schizophrenia – Incidence Details o 1% - 2% populations o Diagnosis in early adulthood  75% of 1 episodes between 15 and 45 o No gender differences in prevalence  Women have better prognosis  Disorders of Childhood:  Disruptive Disorders: o ADHD, Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder  Emotional Disorders o Depression, separation anxiety, other anxiety disorders  Developmental Disorders Aneeqa Akhtar April 20 , 2016 o Autism, mental retardation, disorders of learning

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Chapter 4.5, Problem 12 is Solved
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Textbook: Trigonometry
Edition: 10
Author: Margaret L. Lial, John Hornsby, David I. Schneider, Callie Daniels
ISBN: 9780321671776

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Spring Motion The height attained by a weight attached to