Spring Motion The height attained by a weight attached to a spring set in motion is s1t2 = -4 cos 8pt inches after t seconds. (a) Find the maximum height that the weight rises above the equilibrium position of s(t) = 0. (b) When does the weight first reach its maximum height if t 0? (c) What are the frequency and the period?
Aneeqa Akhtar April 18 , 2016 Chapter 15: Personality Continued Four Big Theories of Personality Psychoanalytic Theory: devised by Sigmund Freud o Stages of Psychosexual Development Patients’ symptoms rooted in conflicts from childhood Id’s pleasure-seeking energies focused on different parts of the body (erogenous zones) – the original sources of pleasure and id gratification Psychosexual stages are universal Erogenous zones: parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure-giving qualities at particular stages Caregivers are crucial to negotiating children through stages o Fixation: individual is “locked” in a stage because needs are under- or overgratified o Anal stage: how parents handle potty-trained shapes personality Child shamed for making mess o The Story of Oedipus / Oedipus Complex During phallic stage (3-6 years old), boys develop unconscious sexual desires for mother, jealousy and hatred of father (rival) o Feelings of guilt, fear of punishment (anxiety) Castration anxiety = fear of being castrated by father for desiring mom, and becoming like a female Reduced through identification with same-sex parent If unresolved, develops into personality that is vain, aggressive, and ambitious to a fault Girls -> Electra Complex o A girl’s feelings of inferiority and jealousy (anxiety) o Penis envy: anger, regret over being female Freud: we marry people like our opposite sex parent o It’s all about anxiety Tension between hedonistic id and conscious/superego = personality o Giving into id produces negative consequences o Ego tries to find outlets but can be thwarted o The result is generalized anxiety and unease Defense mechanism: method of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality o Repression: forcibly blocking unacceptable thoughts from conscious mind…reduces anxiety Ex: pain of childbirth o Projection: disguise own threatening impulses by attributing them to others o Reaction formation: unconsciously switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites Ex: homosexual man having heterosexual affairs or making anti-gay comments o Sublimation: redirecting psychic energy away from negative outlets, toward positive outlets Aneeqa Akhtar April 18 , 2016 Ex: art, music o Denial: person refuses to recognize reality o Displacement: substituting a less threatening object for the original object of impulse. o Rationalization: substituting socially acceptable reasons o Psychoanalysis; technique of treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions Freud sought to explain what he observed during psychoanalysis Free association: method of exploring the unconscious o Person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing o Projective Personality Tests: test using ambiguous stimuli to elicit projection of inner conflicts o Object-Relations Theories: emphasizes real (as opposed to fantasized) relations with others Socio-Cognitive Theory: o Each person has a unique personality because of our personal histories o Personal events and how we interpret them shape our personalities o Derived from behaviorism and empirical findings Includes cognitive processes shaped by conditioning forces Individual’s perspective of the world o One example: Locus of Control (Rotter) Emphasizes a person’s internal or external focus as a major determinant of personality Internal locus of control: o Life outcomes are under personal control o Positively correlated with self-esteem (elderly) o Internals use more problem-focused coping External locus of control: o Luck, chance o Also, Cognitive-Affective Personality System (Mischel) Five key individual difference that make up our differing personalities 1) Encoding and construals o How we make sense of the world around us 2) expectancies and beliefs o Outcome expectations and self-efficacy Humanistic Theory o Humanistic personality theories reject psychoanalytic notions and learning theory as “dehumanizing” We are not a slave to our urges and to conditioning but active determinants of who we are and want to be Humans at the center of the theory, not outside forces o Views each person as basically good and that people are striving for self-fulfillment o Argues that people carry a perception of themselves and the world Aneeqa Akhtar th April 18 , 2016 o Carl Rogers and Self-theory We act in a manner that is consistent with or self-schema: our core conception of ourselves o People with low self-esteem generally have poor congruence between their self-schemas and life experiences o Self-esteem: relative balance of positive and negative self-judgement Actual vs Possible Selves o Motivated to narrow the distance between the two Aneeqa Akhtar April 20 , 2016 Chapter 16: Psychopathology Psychopathology: the study of abnormal thoughts, behaviors, and feelings Psycho = mind Pathology = disease Insanity: a legal term, refers to an inability to manage one’s affairs or to be unaware of the consequences of one’s actions Those judged insane by a court of law are not held legally accountable for their actions Can be involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital Normality: takes into account three things 1) Subjective Discomfort o Feelings of discomfort, unhappiness, or emotional distress 2) Socially Abnormal o Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self- destructive behavior o Walking around naked is not normal, unless you are in a locker room o Situational Context: social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstances in which behavior takes place o Cultural Relativity: judgements are made relative to the value of one’s culture (i.e. talking to spirits in Native American culture) 3) Statistically Abnormal o Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression. o Not all statistically abnormal behavior is considered abnormal: super athletic, musical, or intellectual tendencies. When does abnormal become psychopathology The 3 D’s: 1) Deviant: statistically vs socially abnormal (violation of social norms) 2) Distressing: to either (or both) yourself or others 3) Dysfunctional: maladaptive, impairs daily functions Clinical Assessment: a systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors. Gathering information about the way a person thinks, feels, and behaves in order to form a judgement about that person Types of assessments: interviews (structured/unstructured), physical exams, observations, clinical/psychological tests Diagnosis: the degree of fit between symptoms and predefined criteria Purposes: o Helps treatment planning o Understand prognosis o Guide research Multi-Axial System of DSM-IV DSM-IV -> American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; widely used system for classifying psychological disorders Five axis of diagnosis Aneeqa Akhtar April 20 , 2016 o Axis I – Major disorders (depression, anxiety, SCZ, etc.) o Axis II – stable, enduring problems (personality disorders, intellectual impairment) o Axis III – related medical conditions (ex. brain injury, hypertension) o Axis IV – psychosocial and environmental problems (unemployment) o Axis V – global assessment of functioning (0-100) Medical Model Concept that diseases have physical causes Can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured Assumes that these “mental” illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital Bio-psycho-social Perspective Assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders. Integrative Explanation Biopsychosocial model is currently most comprehensive approach Diathesis-stress model Diathesis = predisposition, stress = environmental triggers Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder: client is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal o Social anxiety: symptoms occur in social setting, fear of scrutiny, public humiliation/embarrassment Panic Disorder: marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation Phobia: persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation. o Marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable, cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation; can induce panic o Most common phobias: blood/injections, animals (snake, mice, roaches), flying, claustrophobia Treating Anxiety Disorders Cognitive Therapy: teaching the patient to recognize cognitive triggers and change them o Panic example Exposure Therapy: gradually increase the patient’s exposure to the source of anxiety o A behavioral approach – uses habituation, conditioning o Example of treating a flying phobia Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder What are obsessions o Persistent, intrusive, and distressing thoughts, impulses, or images o Paired with increase in anxiety o Most common: contamination, hurting others, need for symmetry What are compulsions o Repetitive, ritualistic behaviors or mental acts Aneeqa Akhtar April 20 , 2016 o The person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly o The compulsions are performed to prevent or “undo” some dreaded outcome Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Exposure to a traumatic event that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others. During event, the person felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Traumatic event is persistently re-experienced, through recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress when confronted with a “trigger”. Persistent symptoms of increased arousal, such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, irritability or outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, or an exaggerated startle response. Mood Disorders: characterized by emotional extremes Major Depressive Disorder: a mood disorder in which a person experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities o At least of 5 of the below, for at least 2 weeks. Must have one of the first 2 symptoms listed Depressed mood most of the day Diminished interest or pleasure in activities most of the day Significant appetite/weight changes Sleep problems Psychomotor agitation or retardation Fatigue, loss of energy Feelings of worthlessness, intense inappropriate guilt Unable to concentrate or make decisions Recurrent thought of death, suicidal ideation, or suicide attempt Mania: a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity Decreased need for sleep Talkative, pressured speech Flight of ideas, racing thoughts Distractible Bipolar Disorder A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania Formerly called manic-depressive disorder Dissociative Disorders: conscious awareness become separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings Schizophrenia: literal transition “split mind” A group of severe psychotic disorders characterized by: o Disorganized and delusional thinking Aneeqa Akhtar April 20 , 2016 o Disturbed perceptions o Inappropriate emotions and actions Common Misconceptions o Schizophrenia is NOT dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder). This is EXTREMELY rare, despite what you may see on shows. o Schizophrenias DO NOT tend to be violent toward themselves or others o Not all cases are chronic o Symptoms: Positive Symptoms: o The presence of something that is normally absent (ex. Hallucination, delusions) o Delusions o False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders o Hallucinations o False sensory experiences such as seeing something without any external visual stimulus Negative Symptoms: o The absence of something that is normally present (lack of affect, social withdrawal) o Psychomotor symptoms o Disturbances in movement o Poverty of speech o Blunted affect o Loss of violation o Social withdrawal Schizophrenia Associated Features: o Depression and/or anxiety o Anhedonia: loss of interest or pleasure o Disturbance in sleeping and eating patterns o Inability to concentrate o Lack of insight Schizophrenia – Incidence Details o 1% - 2% populations o Diagnosis in early adulthood 75% of 1 episodes between 15 and 45 o No gender differences in prevalence Women have better prognosis Disorders of Childhood: Disruptive Disorders: o ADHD, Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder Emotional Disorders o Depression, separation anxiety, other anxiety disorders Developmental Disorders Aneeqa Akhtar April 20 , 2016 o Autism, mental retardation, disorders of learning