In 3138, find the nth term an of each geometric sequence. When given, r is the common ratio.
1/23/16 MGT 3813 – Org.Behavior § Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. § Why should managers care § Whereas attitudes can change,personality traits generally don’t … you need to catch this stuff in the interview process to avoid making a bad hire. § Two most common approaches: § Myers-Briggs Type Indicator § Big Five Factor Personality Traits 1 1/23/16 § Most widely used personality assessment in the world § Typically a 100 question survey § Asks how people feel or act in certain situations § Extraversion = being energized by interaction with other people § Introversion = being energized by time spent alone § Your preference DOES NOT indicate presence/lack of social skills! § U.S. is almost evenly split: §49% of workforce are extraverts §51% are introverts § Extraverted §Prefer variety §Don’t mind being interrupted by phone calls or office visits § Introverted §Prefer to concentrate quietly and think things through privately §Dislike interruptions 2 1/23/16 § Tips thatYou Are Talking to an Introvert: (Extreme Introvert) § Eye contact may be diffused or infrequent; § will probably have studied any advance materials; § may have communicated with you in advance in writing; § may be pauses before they respond to a question or react to a comment; § may seem to form one-on-one relationships within the group,rather than participate in the entire group process. § Tips thatYou Are Talking to an Extravert: § Eye contact is usually direct and intense; § may not review advance materials—and even if he or she did,still wants to "hear it from the horse’s mouth"; § lack of advance notice does not inhibit participation; § participates frequently in discussions; § may interrupt others frequently;may be challenged by listening skills; § becomes demotivated when asked to work on a solitary project in isolation. § Give Introverts advance notice of topics and issues. § Don’t assume Introverts are uninterested just because they are silent. Ask them directly for a response or give them some time to process an idea, then ask for their response. § If you are an Extravert, don’t intimidate Introverts with intense eye contact. § If you are an Introvert, make eye contact more directly than you might like and sustain it. 3 1/23/16 § Allow plenty of discussion time for the Extraverts.That is how they process and doesn’t mean they are resistant to the idea. § If you are an Extravert, don’t be unnerved by pauses before an Introverted person responds to something you say or ask. And above all, resist the urge to interrupt them, to rush in while they are pausing, or to complete their sentences. § http://www.ted.com/talks/ susan_cain_the_power_of_introverts.html § Sensing = Gathering information through the five senses and focusing on what actually exists § Practical,prefer routine and order § Focus on the details § Intuitive = Gathering information through a “sixth sense” and focusing on what could be § Rely on unconscious processes § Focus on the big picture § 70% of American workforce is “sensing” 4 1/23/16 § Sensing §Prefer specific answers to questions,get frustrated by vague instructions §Like jobs that provide tangible results §Would rather use established skills vs.new ones § Intuitive §Like solving new problems,impatient with routine details §Enjoy learning new skills more than actually using them §Tend to think about several things at once—may seem absent- minded § Sensors will ask LOTS of questions and want LOTS of detail. If you are an Intuitive, don’t become frustrated or see this as resistance—that’s usually not their intent. § If you are working with--or living with--an Intuitive, begin with the "big picture," and the meaning/significance of the issue— the "why" questions--then proceed to detail. § If you are working with--or living with--a Sensor, begin with the details—with "how" to do something---then proceed to the "big picture." § Feed ideas to Intuitives and facts to Sensors. § Errors of fact will destroy your credibility with Sensors. § Facts without meaning or significance—bureaucracy without purpose—will make you seem like a "lightweight" to Intuitives. § Get the attention of Sensors with facts. Get the attention of Intuitives with vision. 5 1/23/16 § Thinking = Making decisions in a logical, objective fashion §Relies on reason and logic §Analyze § Feeling = Making decisions in a personal, value-oriented way §Relies on personal values and emotions §Sympathize § American workforce is 40% thinking, 60% feeling § Men generally tend to be thinking, women feeling § Thinkers need to know that any decisions you make are logical and consistent. §Demonstrate how the decision is consistent with other decisions §show the fairness and even-handedness of policies and procedures § Feelers want to know that you have taken into account their values, the impact on people's morale and self-esteem, and validated them as individuals. § Bullying behavior, ignoring or interrupting others, failing to take other people’s perspectives seriously, etc. will be dealt with harshly by Feelers. § Judging = Preferring closure and completion in making decisions §Prefers order,structure,control § Perceiving = Preferring to explore many alternatives with flexibility and spontaneity §Prefers being flexible and spontaneous 6 1/23/16 § Judging §Love getting things accomplished,checking off“to-do’s” § Perceiving §Have a wait-and-see perspective,collecting new information instead of drawing conclusions §Curious,welcome new information §May start many projects without finishing them § https://www.youtube.com/watchv=72OW1F8ouvA EXTRAVERSION SENSING THINKING JUDGING Outgoing Practical Analytical Structured Publicly Specific Clarity Time-oriented expressive Feet on the Head Decisive Interacting ground Justice Makes lists/uses them Speaks,then Details Rules Organized thinks Concrete Gregarious INTROVERSION INTUITIVE FEELING PERCEIVING Quiet General Subjective Flexible Reserved Abstract Harmony Open ended Concentrating Head in the Heart Exploring Thinks,then clouds Mercy Makes lists/loses them speaks Possibilities Circumstance Spontaneous Reflective Theoretical 7 1/23/16 § Is it a valid measure of personality § Evidence is mixed § 50% chance you will test into different category if you retake within 5 weeks § Forces people into one type § Recommendations: § Don’t use as a selection test! § Good for team building,career development EXTRAVERSION The person is gregarious,assertive, sociable (not reserved,timid). AGREEABLENESS The person is cooperative,warm,and agreeable (not cold,antagonistic). CONSCIENTIOUSNESS The person is hardworking,organized,and dependable (not lazy,unreliable). EMOTIONAL STABILITY The person is calm,self-confident,and cool (not insecure,anxious,depressed). OPENNESSTO The person is creative,curious,and EXPERIENCE fascinated with novelty. § Conscientiousness § More motivated § Higher job performance** § Less likely to be absent from work § Agreeableness § Tend to be more liked § Rate people more leniently on annual reviews § Less likely to engage in deviant workplace behavior 8 1/23/16 § Openness to Experience § Better able to handle ambiguity and change § More creative § Effective leaders § Extroverts & Emotional Stability § Tend to be happier § Big Five Factors for Western, American cultures § (not tested across cultures) § Self-esteem § **Your self worth § The degree to which an individual likes or dislikes him or herself § Whether you view yourself as capable and effective § Whether you feel in control over your environment § Self- efficacy § An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of completing his or her job duties § **Belief in your own abilities! § **If you don’t have a high level of self-efficacy,you won’t even attempt something if you think you can’t do it. 9 1/23/16 § Locus of control §Your belief about the extent to which internal factors control what you experience,vs.the extent to which external factors control what you experience §Free will vs.fate § People with an internal locus of control tend to: § Engage in activities that will improve their situation. § Emphasize striving for achievement. § Work hard to develop their knowledge,skills and abilities. § Are inquisitive,and try to figure out why things turned out the way they did. § Take note of information that they can use to create positive outcomes in the future. § Have a more participative management style. § Persevere in the face of resistance. § May leave others feeling “trampled” on in your pursuit of goals/achievement § May be overly harsh/judgmental §How do you feel about people who receive government assistance (e.g.WIC,food stamps) § May inaccurately assess other people’s ability to control the outcome/their performance § May inaccurately assess risk 10 1/23/16 § Self-Monitor § Individual’s ability to adjust behavior to external,situational factors § High self-monitors: § Pay closer attention to the behavior of others § More capable of conforming § Tend to receive better performance evaluations § More likely to emerge as leaders § Show less commitment to the organization § Proactive personality § People who identify opportunities,show initiative,and then take action § More likely to be seen as leaders § More likely to achieve career success § More likely to leave the organization to start their own business § *Turnover is higher is business § Type A personality § Constantly engaged in a chronic struggle to achieve more (and in less time) § Always moving,walking,eating,talking rapidly § Feels impatient with the rate events take place § Strive to do two or more things at once § Cannot cope with leisure time § Are obsessed with #s,and achieving success § Competitive 11 1/23/16 § Helps you understand your co-workers § Selection tool when hiring people § Team-building tool § Basic convictions about human conduct and our modes of existence § Specific belief systems (rather than behavioral tendencies) § Terminal values § **Who do you want to achieve by the end of your life § “Think terminal (as in end of life)” § Desirable end-states of existence § Goals you’d like to achieve in your lifetime § Instrumental values § Preferred modes of behavior for achieving terminal goals § **Instruments you will use to achieve your terminal values § See handout! 12 1/23/16 § Individualism vs. collectivism § Power distance § The extent to which people expect and accept that power is unequally distributed within a country or organization. § How well do you handle authority Being told what to do by someone more powerful than you § Masculinity vs. femininity § High in masculinity Defined gender roles § High in femininity Blurred gender roles § Uncertainty avoidance § How comfortable people are facing risk and uncertainty. § High uncertainty avoidance = cultures that avoid risk § Low uncertainty avoidance = cultures that embrace risk § Long-term vs. Short-term orientation § What kind of time frame do you consider when making decisions § What’s more important:my happiness today,or my descendants’ happiness 100 years from now § AMERICA IS: § Individualism § Lower Level Power Distance § Masculinity § Low/Moderate Uncertainty Avoidance § Short-Term Orientation http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_united_states.shtml 13