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Solution: In 83 94, simplify each expression

Precalculus Enhanced with Graphing Utilities | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780132854351 | Authors: Michael Sullivan ISBN: 9780132854351 232

Solution for problem 93 Chapter A.1

Precalculus Enhanced with Graphing Utilities | 6th Edition

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Precalculus Enhanced with Graphing Utilities | 6th Edition | ISBN: 9780132854351 | Authors: Michael Sullivan

Precalculus Enhanced with Graphing Utilities | 6th Edition

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Problem 93

In 83 94, simplify each expression

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MotivationandEmotion • Motivesandemotionsmotivateustomove,act,orprepareforaction • ThewordsmotiveandemotionarebothderivedfromtheLatinrootmoveremeaning “tomove” Motivation • Factorsthatactivate,direct,andsustaingoal-directedbehavior • “Why’s”ofbehaviorcannotbeobserved,mustbeinferred • Instincts o Instincttheory:behaviorismotivatedbyfixedinbornpatternsofbehaviorthat arespecifictomembersofaparticularspecies § Unlearned,simplyhardwiredintotheirbrain § Birdsbuildnestsandsalmonswimupstreambecausethat’swhattheydo o Problems:listofinstinctsgrewtoolongtobeuseful,instinctsdescribebutdo notexplainbehavior,humanbehavioristoovariableandflexible,whatabout therolesofcultureandlearning • Drivetheory o Maintainthatwearemotivatedbydrivesthatarisefrombiologicalneedsthat demandsatisfaction o Need:stateofdeprivationordeficiency o Drive:astateofbodilytension,suchashungerorthirst,arisingfromanunmet need o Drivereduction:satisfactionofadrive o Homeostasis:tendencytomaintainsteadyinternalstate o Typesofdrives: § Primarydrives:innatedrives,suchashunger,thirst,andsexualdesire, arisingfrombasicbiologicalneeds § Secondarydrives:drivesthatarelearnedoracquiredthroughexperience, suchasthedrivetoachievemonetarywealth • Arousaltheory o Wehaveinnate,biologicalbasedneedforexplorationandactivity § Stimulusmotives:internalstatespromptingexploratorybehavior o Arousaltheory:organismshaveabasicbiologically-basedneedtomaintain stimulationatanoptimallevel o Needsforstimulationvary § Weseekwaystomaintainouroptimallevelofarousal § Strongneedsforhighlevelsofsensation(sensationseeking)appearsto haveastronggeneticcomponent • Incentivetheory o Incentives:thepullsideofmotivation § Rewardsorotherstimulithatmotivateustoact;incentivesmotivateus byexertingapullonourbehavior o Incentivetheory:thebeliefthatourattractiontoparticulargoalsorobjects motivatesmuchofourbehavior § Focusesonthepsychologicalsourcesofmotivation § Holdsthatmotivationisinfluencedbyrewardinggoal-relatedstimuli o Incentivevalue:thestrengthofthepullofagoalorreward • Psychosocialneeds o Needsthatreflectinterpersonalaspectsofmotivation,suchastheneedfor friendshiporachievement o Needforachievement:theneedtoexcelinone’sendeavors § Extrinsicmotivation:reflectsadesireforexternalrewards(money) § Intrinsicmotivation:reflectsadesireforinternalgratification(makesyou feelgood) o Primarymotivation § Achievementmotivation:themotiveordesiretoachievesuccess § Avoidancemotivation:themotiveordesiretoavoidfailure • Maslow’shierarchyofneeds:conceptthatthereisanordertohumanneeds,which startswithbasicbiologicalneedsandprogressestoselfactualization o AlsoknownastheHumanisticTheoryofMotivation o Peoplemoveupthehierarchyofneedstriangleonceeachsetofneedsaremet selfactualization: fulfillmentofindividual potential esteem: achievement,respect,prestige, status,approval emotionalintimacy,friendships,socialconnections safeandsecurehousing,protectionfromcrimeandharshweather hunger,thirst,avoidanceofpain,sexualgratification,elimination HungerandEating • Thehypothalamus o Lateralhypothalamus:involvedininitiatingeating o Ventromedialhypothalamus:signalswhentostopeating o Neurotransmittersandhormonesalsoplayimportantroles o NeuropeptideY:stimulatesappetiteandeating o Leptin:releasedbyfatcellstocurbappetite • Obesity o IntheUS2/3 ofadultsareoverweightand1/3 areobese o IntheUS1/3 ofchildrenareoverweightorobese o Whyisobesityontherise: § Toomanycalories § Toolittleexercise o Increasesariskfor:heartdisease,cancer,strokes,hypertension,respiratory disorder,diabetes,gout,strokes,gallbladderdisease o Casualfactors: § Behavioralpatterns(eatingtoofastortoolargeofportions;adopting unhealthyeatingdiet,eatingfastfoodtoooften) § Genetics § Basalmetabolicrate § Setpointtheory:thebeliefthatthebrainmechanismsregulatebody weightaroundageneticallypredetermined“setpoint” • Heredityinfluencesbodytypeandsetpointandourbodiesalso regulatebycontrollingfoodinputandenergyoutput • Reducingenergyexpendituredropsbasalmetabolicrate:therate ofenergyexpenditureformaintainingbasicbodyfunctionswhen thebodyisatrest § Numberoffatcellsinthebody o Environmentalfactors:exposuretofoodrelatedcues,useofmodernenergy- savingconveniences o Emotionalstates:eatinginanger,toquellanxiety,boredom,etc. o Suggestionsformaintainingahealthyweight § Limitfatintake § Controlportionsize § Slowdownthepaceofeating § Bewareofhiddencalories § Makephysicalactivityapartofyourlifestyle • Eatingdisorders o Anorexia:selfstarvationresultinginanunhealthylowbodyweight § Intensefearofbecomingfat,mosthaveextremelylowbodyweight § Distortedbodyimage § Occursmostofteninyoungwomen § Comeswithseriousmedicalproblems,canevencauseearlydeath o Bulimianervosa:characterizedbyepisodesofbingeeatingfollowedbypurging § Obsessedwithweight § Unhappywithbody § Maintainsanormalbodyweight § Hardertorecognizeordiagnose o Causeofeatingdisorders § Socioculturalfactors:thinnessandattractiveness § Psychologicalfactors:anxietyanddepression § Biologicalfactors:problemswithhypothalamus Emotions • Feelingstatesthatpsychologistsviewashavingphysiological,cognitive,andbehavioral components • Basiccomponentsofemotions o Bodilyarousal:nervoussystemactivation o Cognition:subjectiveexperienceofthefeeling o Expressedbehavior:outwardexpressionofemotions • Sixbasicemotionalexpressions o Anger o Fear § TheJames-Langetheoryproposesthatemotionsfollowbodilyreactions totriggeringstimuli • Perceptionofstimulus⇒arousal⇒emotion § TheCannon-Bardtheoryproposesthatthesubjectiveexperienceofan emotionandthebodilyreactionsassociatedwithitoccurvirtually simultaneously • Perceptionofstimulus⇒arousalandemotion § Thetwo-factormodelproposesthatthecombinationofphysiological arousalandcognitiveappraisal(labeling)ofthesourceofthearousal producesthespecificemotionalstate • Perceptionofstimulus⇒arousaland“I’mafraid”⇒emotion § Thedualpathwaymodelsuggeststwopathwaysforprocessingfear stimuliinthebrain • Ahighroad:theslowerpathleadingtothecerebralcortex • Alowroad:thefasterpathleadingtotheamygdala o Disgust o Sadness o Happiness § Positivepsychology:promotinghappinessbyfocusingonstrengthsand virtues § Emergenceofpositivepsychologyfocusesrenewedattentiononhuman happiness § Twofactorsseemtopredicthappiness:havingfriends,religion • Toincreasepersonalhappiness:gratitudevisits,threeblessings, onedoorclosesandanotheropens,savoring § Threetypesofhappiness:pleasureofdoingthings,gratification,meaning o Surprise • Displayrules:sociallyandculturallyrelatedcustomsregardingtheextenttowhichone outwardlyexpressestheiremotions,varyfromculturetoculture • Facialfeedbackhypothesis o Beliefthatmimickingfacialmovementswillinducethecorrespondingemotion o Duchennesmile:agenuinesmilethatinvolvescontractionofaparticularsetof facialmuscles § Notallsmilesarethesame • Thebrain o Emotionsareregulatedbydifferentareasofthebrain o Thelimbicsystem(includingtheamygdalaandhippocampus)areinvolvedinthe fearresponse o Therearehemisphericdifferencesintheprocessingofemotions • Theypolygraph o Deviceusedtodetectwhetherpeoplearelying o Measuresseveralofthephysiologicalresponsesaccompanyingemotion § Perspiration § Cardiovascular § Breathingchanges o Criticisms: § Lyingdoesnotproduceanydistinctivephysiologicalpattern § Onecanliewithoutanytelltalephysiologicalreaction DevelopmentalPsychology • Thebranchofpsychologythatexploresphysical,emotional,cognitive,andsocialaspects ofdevelopment • Maturation:thebiologicalunfoldingoftheorganismaccordingtotheunderlyinggenetic code • Issue o Howdogeneticinheritance o Nature/Nurture (ournature)andexperience (thenurturereceived) influenceourbehavior o Isdevelopmentagradual, o Continuity/Stages continuousprocessora sequenceofseparatestages o Doourearlypersonality o Stability/Change traitspersistthroughlife,or dowebecomedifferent • Details personsasweage • Crosssectionalstudy:astudyinwhichpeopleofdifferentagesarecomparedwithone another • Longitudinalstudy:astudyinwhichthesamepeoplearerestudiedandretestedovera longperiod PrenatalStages • Conception:fertilizationofthefemaleeggbythemalesperm,thisunioncreatesanew cellcalledazygote o Zygote:contains46chromosomes,23fromeachparent • Identicaltwins:developfromasinglefertilizedeggthatsplitsintwo,creatingtwo geneticallyidenticalorganisms • Fraternaltwins:developfromseparateeggs 1. Ovulation:thereleaseofaneggcell(ovum)fromtheovary 2. Ovaries:thefemalegonads,whichsecretethefemalesexhormonesestrogenand progesteroneandproducematureeggcells 3. Fallopiantube:astraw-liketubebetweenanovaryandtheuterusthroughwhichan ovumpassesafterovulation • Prenataldevelopmentisdividedinto3stages o Germinalstage:fromfertilizationtoimplantationincallofuterus § Periodfromfertilizationtoimplantationinwallofuterus(about14days) § Organismiscalledazygotewhichisadividingmassofcells § Thezygoteslowlymigratesupthemother’sfallopiantubetotheuterine cavity § Theplacentaisformed th o Embryonicstage:fromimplantationtoaboutthe8 weekofpregnancy § 2weeksorimplantationto8week § Organismisnowcalledanembryo § Mostofthevitalorgansandbodilysystemsbegintoform • Alsoknownasthecriticalperiod § Developmentfollowstwogeneraltrends o Fetalstage:beginsaround9 weekandcontinuesuntilbirth § 8weekstobirth § Organismiscalledafetus § Earlyinthisstage,musclesandbonesbegintoform § Bytheendofthe3 month,gendercanbedeterminedandorgan systemshavethrmed § Andbythe7 monthallofthemajororgansarefunctional • EnvironmentalFactors o Teratogens:anyagentthatcausesbirthdefects § Chemicalsorvirusesthatcanentertheplacentaandharmthedeveloping fetus • Possiblediseases:rubella(causesheartdisease,deafness,and mentalretardation)andAIDS(amothercaninfecttheinfant3 ways) o Maternalnutrition:poornutritioncancauselowbirthweight,prematurebirth, lessdevelopedbrain,maycausethechildtobemorevulnerabletodiseases,and canleadtospinalbifida o X-ray:prenatalexposuretoXrayscandisruptthemigrationofbraincells, causingmentalretardation o Smoking:increasedriskforreducedattentionspan,hyperactivity,childhood asthma,lowerIQ,andSIDS o Drugs:virtuallyalldrugscanbeharmfultothedevelopingembryoandfetus, withsedatives,narcotics,andcocainebeingdangerous o Alcohol:(fetalalcoholsyndrome)aclusterofabnormalitiesthatappearinthe offspringofmotherswhodrinkalcoholheavilyduringpregnancy,characterized bydeformitiesoftheheart,faceandfingers,anddefectivelimbs § Thesechildrenareslowerinmotordevelopment,lowerinintelligence, andpossibleretardation InfantDevelopment • Sensoryabilitiesininfants o Vision:blurrybutcanrecognizemom’sface,preferencesforface-likepatterns, by1monthcanvisuallytrackamovingobject,basiccolorvisiondevelopsby about2months,depthperceptiondevelopsbyaround6months o Hearing:particularlysensitivetosoundswithinfrequencyofhumanvoice,can discernmother’svoicefromothervoices,justhoursafterbirthcandifferentiate soundsinnativelanguagefromthoseinaforeigntongue,byseveralmonthscan discriminatebetweenvariousspeechsounds o Smell:at5-6dayscandetectmother’sodor,reactappropriatelytorepulsive scents o Taste:candiscriminateamongdifferenttastes,showpreferencesforsweetness • Perceptuallearningabilityininfants o Infantsmayseemtodolittlemorethansleep,eat,andexcrete,buttheyhave moreperceptualandlearningabilitiesthanmanypeoplerecognize o Perceptualability § Notblooming,buzzingconfusionofmeaninglessstimuliatbirth § Canbegintomakemeaningfuldiscriminationsamongstimulishortly afterbirth § By4-6monthscandiscriminateamongdifferentfacialexpressions o Learningability § Abletolearnsimpleresponses § Abletoretainmemoriesoflearnedresponses § Showmemoryoffacesat6-7months • Motordevelopment o Reflexesslowlyreplaceswithvoluntarypurposivemovements § Ex:bringingobjectstothemouth,graspingobjects o Majorlandmarksinmotordevelopmentinthefirstyear: § Byabout2months:abletoliftchin § Byabout5months:abletorollover § Byabout9months:sitswithoutsupport § Byabout1year:standswithoutsupport DevelopmentinChildhood • Temperament:the“how”ofbehavior o Threegeneraltypes § Easychildren § Difficultchildren § Slow-to-warm-upchildren o Predictslaterdifferencesinadjustment o Shapedbybothnatureandnurture • Attachment:aclose,emotionalbondbetweenchildandcaregiver o Doesnotformimmediatelyafterbirth o Notthesameas“bonding” o Isseeninmanyanimalspecies,whenimprintingoccurs o Theoriesofattachment § Imprinting:theformationofastrongbondofthenewbornanimaltothe firstmovingobjectseenafterbirth § Harlow’ssurrogatemotherexperiments:monkeyspreferredcontactwith thecomfortableclothmother,evenwhilefeedingfromthenourishing wiremother;pointingtoastrongattachmentandneedforcontact comfort § MaryAinsworth:secure,insecure-avoidant,insecure-resistant, disorganized/disoriented • Childrearinginfluences o Manyfactorsinfluenceachild’sdevelopment,includingpeers,parents,siblings, authorityfigures,andgenetics o Theimportantinfluenceoffathers o Culturaldifferencesinparenting • Keystobecominganauthoritativeparent o Relyonreason,notforce o Showwarmth o Listentochildren’sopinions o Setmaturebutreasonableexpectations • Stagesofpersonality o ErikEriksonproposedastagetheoryofpsychosocialdevelopment § Stagetheoriesassumethatindividualsprogressthroughspecifiedstages inaparticularorderbecauseeachstagebuildsonthepreviousone § Theyalsoassumethatprogressthroughthestagesisstronglyrelatedto ageandthatdevelopmentismarkedbymajordiscontinuitiesorabrupt shiftsthatbringaboutdramaticchangesinbehavior CognitiveDevelopment • JeanPiagetdevelopedatheory • Sensorimotorstage o Objectpermanence:therecognitionthatobjectscontinuetoexistevenifthey havedisappearedfromsight • Conservation:theabilitytorecognizethatthequantityoramountofanobjectremains constantdespitesuperficialchangesinitsoutwardappearance o Conservationtasks:usedtoevaluatewhetherachilddevelopedtheprincipleof conservation • Assimilation:theprocessofincorporatingnewobjectsorsituationsintoexisting schemas • Accommodation:theprocessofcreatingnewschemasormodifyingexistingonesto accountfornewobjectsorexperiences Adolescence • Theperiodoflifebeginningatpubertyandendingwithearlyadulthood • Puberty:thestageofdevelopmentatwhichindividualsbecomephysiologicallycapable ofreproducing • Menarche:thefirstoccurrenceofmenstruation • Physicaldevelopment o Primarysexcharacteristic:bodystructuresthatmakesexualreproduction possible o Secondarysexualcharacteristics:thenon-reproductivetraitsalsodevelop § Breastsandhipsingirls,facialhairanddeepeningofvoiceinboys • Effectoftimingofpuberty:boys o Earlymaturation:athleticadvantages,morepositiveself-esteem o Latermaturation:lesspopular,subjectofridiculeorbecomingsocially ostracized,morelikelytoengageindeviantsocialbehavior • Effectsofearlymaturationtendtoaffectboysandgirlsdifferently • Effectoftimingofpuberty:girls o Earlymaturation:unwelcomesexualattention,feelsthatnolonger“fitsin”with peers,lowerself-esteem,morenegativebodyimage,moreemotionaland substance-abuseproblems • Cognitivedevelopment o Piaget’sformaloperationsstage o Adolescentegocentrism § Imaginaryaudience § Personalfable Personality • Therelativelystablesetofpsychologicalcharacteristicsandbehaviorpatternsthat makeusuniqueasindividuals • Helpsaccountfortheconsistencyinourbehaviorovertime • Thestudyofpersonalityinvolvesattemptstodescribeandexplainthefactorsthatmake usunique • Freud’spsychoanalytictheory o Freud’stheoryofpersonalitythatholdsthatpersonalityandbehaviorare shapedbyunconsciousforcesandconflicts o Inhisclinicalpractice,Freudencounteredpatientssufferingfromnervous disorders;theircomplaintscouldnotbeexplainedintermsofpurelyphysical causes • Freud’s3levelsofconsciousness o Conscious:thepartofthemindcorrespondingtothestateofpresentawareness o Preconscious:thepartofthemindwhosecontentscanbebroughtinto awarenessthroughfocusedattention o Unconscious:thepartofthemindthatliesoutsidetherangeofordinary awarenessandthatholdstroublingorunacceptableurges,impulses,memories, andideas • Structureofpersonality o Id:pleasureprinciple § Thepsychicstructureexistingintheunconsciousthatcontainsourbasic animaldrivesandinstinctualimpulses o Ego:realityprinciple § Thepsychicstructurethatattemptstobalancetheinstinctualdemands oftheidwithsocialrealitiesandexpectations o Superego:moralprinciple § Thepsychicstructurethatcorrespondstoaninternalmoralguardianor conscious • Conflict o Egoholdstheurgesincheckwithreality o Idgratifiesurgesimmediately o Superegoholdsurgesincheckwithmorality • Anxietyanddefensemechanisms o Defensemechanisms:thereality-distortingstrategiesoftheegotoprevent awarenessofanxiety-evokingortroublingideasorimpulses o Majordefensemechanisms: § Repression:buryingdistressingorunacceptableimpulsesandwishesin theunconscious(motivatedforgettingofanxiety-evokingmaterial) • Ex:ayounggirlforgetsthatshewassexuallyabusedbyheruncle asachild § Denial:thefailuretorecognizeathreateningimpulseorurge • Ex:substanceabusersadmittingtheyhaveaproblem § Reactionformation:behavinginawaythatistheoppositeofone’strue wishesordesiresinordertokeeptheserepressed • Ex:awomanwhofearshersexualurges,becomesareligious zealot § Rationalization:theuseofself-justificationtoexplainunacceptable behavior,impulses,orideas • Ex:awomanexplainssheatetheentirechocolatecakesothatit wouldn’tspoilinthesummerheat § Projection:theprojectionofone’sownunacceptableimpulses,wishes,or urgesontoanotherperson • Ex:amanwithastrongdesiretohaveanextramaritalaccuseshis wifeofhavingone § Sublimation:thechannelingofunacceptableimpulsesintosocially sanctionedbehaviorsorinterests • Ex:amanwithstrongsexualurgesbecomesanartistwhopaints nudes § Regression:anindividual,usuallyunderhighlevelsofstress,revertsinto abehaviorcharacteristicofanearlierstageofdevelopment • Ex:awomanreturnshometomothereverytimeshehasabig argumentwithherhusband § Displacement:unacceptablesexualoraggressiveimpulseistransferred toanobjectorpersonthatissaferorlessthreateningthantheoriginal objectoftheimpulse • Ex:amanredirectsangerfromhisbosstohiswifeandchildren • Freud’spsychoanalytictheory o Erogenouszones:partsofthechild’sbodythatbringsphysicalandpsychological pleasurewhenstimulated o Fixation:occurswhenonebecomes“stuck”atoneofthestagesbeforemoving ontothenextone,failingtofullyresolveastagecanleadtolater-lifepersonality characteristicsassociatedwiththestageoffixation o Oralstage:birthto18monthsold § Erogenouszoneisthemouth(sucking/biting) § Conflictisweaningfrombreastorbottle § Toolittle/muchgratificationcanleadtooralfixations o Analstage:18-36months § Erogenouszoneisanalactivity § Sexualpleasurethroughtheabilitytocontrolelimination § Conflictarisesoverissueoftoilettraining § Anal-retentivevs.anal-expulsivepersonality o Phallicstage:age3-6years § Erogenouszoneisthephallicregion § CoreconflictistheOedipuscomplex § Freud’sfollowerscalledfemaleversionofconflicttheElectracomplex § Boysdevelopcastrationanxiety § Girlsexperiencepenisenvy o Latencystage:age6-12years § Sexualimpulsesremaindormant o Genitalstage:pubertytoadulthood § Attractiontooppositegender § Sexualenergiesexpressedthroughsexualintercourse,marriage,child bearing

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Chapter A.1, Problem 93 is Solved
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Textbook: Precalculus Enhanced with Graphing Utilities
Edition: 6
Author: Michael Sullivan
ISBN: 9780132854351

The answer to “In 83 94, simplify each expression” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 6 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 93 from chapter: A.1 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 01/11/18, 01:38PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 114 chapters, and 8075 solutions. Precalculus Enhanced with Graphing Utilities was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780132854351. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Precalculus Enhanced with Graphing Utilities, edition: 6. Since the solution to 93 from A.1 chapter was answered, more than 231 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer.

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Solution: In 83 94, simplify each expression