An article in the Tappi Journal (March 1986) presented data on green liquor Na2S concentration (in grams per liter) and paper machine production (in tons per day). The data (read from a graph) follow:
(a) Fit a simple linear regression model with y = green liquor Na2S concentration and x = production. Find an estimate of σ2. Draw a scatter diagram of the data and the resulting least squares fitted model.
(b) Find the fitted value of y corresponding to x = 910 and the associated residual.
(c) Find the mean green liquor Na2S concentration when the production rate is 950 tons per day.
Intro to Theatre Italian Renaissance Renaissance= rebirth of civilization Explosion of art, culture, and travel centered in Italy after the Fall of Constantinople 1453 Reintroduction and gained interest in the classical world of Greece and Rome Education suddenly became important to higher classes Art is getting realistic and mathematical Why Italy Major trade route from Asia/Africa to Europe o Lots of culture and people traveling through They had a lot of trade and so a lot of wealth and so a lot of leisure time Power transfers from Constantinople to Italy o Merchants run from Constantinople smuggling are and plays with them to sell on black market where rich people buy them Everybody wants to out do their neighbor with money Mannerism 1520-1600 Mannerism Tries to make form look natural and real Uses science and math to make life-like visual representation In theatre, displayed by Neoclassic ideals Shows chaos of life to show pure form Neoclassicism New classic Gets ideas from old Greek and Roman classics 1570 Council of Trent puts more focus on Aristotle’s Poetics rather than the Roman Horace’s Art of Poetry Drama has only two forms: comedy and tragedy Stressed not polluting purity of each form by mixing Had to submit plays to people who licensed plays Had to follow rules and if they didn’t, they were given back with notes and had to correct it Tragedy o Came from Greeks o Characters: ruling class o Stories: history or mythology o Ending: sad Comedy o Came from Romans o Characters: middle or lower classes o Stories: domestic and private affairs o Ending: happy 5 act play structure o Came from Romans Function was to teach and please o Came from Greeks o Comedy teaches by ridiculing behavior that should be avoided o Tragedy teaches by showing the horrifying results if mistakes and misdeeds Strive for verisimilitude- the appearance of truth How to achieve verisimilitude Based on reality o No fantasy or supernatural events o Soliloquies (actor talking to audience) is not realistic o Actor talks to confidant who replaces the audience o Neoclassical unities Unity of time Perform in realistic time frame (24 hours) Unity of place One location (1 street or 1 room) Realistic travel Unity of action One story that is told No subplot or useless characters Morality o Drama teaches moral lessons o Don’t copy life but reveal moral pattern Good actions= good effects Bad actions= bad effects Universality o All aspects of the play are universal in audience appeal and observation o The meaning is the same no matter time, ethnicity or place o Cartoons do a great job of this o Teaches permanent aspects of human condition Festival Theatre is in festival atmosphere o Special occasions o Sponsored by merchants and rich people Would have common theme that everything revolves around Trionfi o Roman triumphal entries (shows off) o Pageant wagons o Costumes of mythological creatures o Parade led to festival grounds Intermezzi Type of performance from Rome Start of operas Roman material performed at court during official events contained heavy material Between acts, small numbers were performed o Wow the audience with effects o Lightens mood o Where intermission comes from Allegorical plots to pay compliments to those being honored (payed for event) Eventually became more popular than regular drama because of spectacle included Opera o Developed in attempt to use intermezzi techniques to recreate Greek tragedy o Sung all dialogues o Not subtle Commedia Dell’Arte Most drama was for the upper class Commedia Dell’Arte was made for the common class Basics o Almost everything was improv Performers work from an outline of a basic story o Stock characters Character stereotypes with identifiable costumes and traits Story outlines include lazzi o Comic gags (physical comedy) o Keep up the pace o Running around balcony o Unspilled wine o Slapping Commedia Characters Unmasked o Young lovers Innamorato Dashing young male lover Opposed in his love by an older man Inamorata Young female lover Sought by both young and older Masked o Masters Capitano Cocky guy who deep down is a big coward Boasted to be a great lover Unwelcome suitor to the young woman Pantalone Middle-aged or elderly merchant Posed as a young man and went after the inamorata Dottore Pantalone’s friend or rival Doctor, lawyer, politicians Show off, cocky about his learning and education o Servants Zanni Usually come in pairs: one stupid and one cunning Keeps the plots moving forward as they try to help/hurt their masters Harlequin o Most popular of the zany o At the center of the story most of the time o Acrobat and dancer o Cunning and stupid all rolled into one