An article in Optical Engineering [“Operating Curve Extraction of a Correlator’s Filter” (2004, Vol. 43, pp. 2775–2779)] reported on the use of an optical correlator to perform an experiment by varying brightness and contrast. The resulting modulation is characterized by the useful range of gray levels. The data follow:
(a) Fit a multiple linear regression model to these data.
(b) Estimate σ2.
(c) Compute the standard errors of the regression coefficients.
(d) Predict the useful range when brightness = 80 and contrast = 75.
Tuesday, April 5, 2016 Chapter 12 Leadership and Follower-ship 80%-85% are followers 15%-20% are leaders - Leadership - process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environment • formal leadership - ofﬁcially sanctioned leadership based on the authority of a formal position • informal leadership - unofﬁcial leadership accorded to a person by other members of the organization - Management and Leadership • management - planning and budgeting - organizing and stafﬁng - controlling and problem solving • leadership - setting a direction for the organization - aligning people with that direction - motivating people - Early Trait Theories • distinguished leaders by - physical attraction - personality characteristics - abilities (speech ﬂuency, social skills, insight) 1 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Behavioral Theorists - learning what behavior is strengthened or weakened by applying consequences or rewards • Lewin On Leadership - autocratic style - the leader uses strong, directive actions to control the rules, regulations, activities, and relationships in the work environment - democratic style - the leader uses interaction and collaboration with followers to direct the work and work environment - Laissez-Faire style - the leader has a hands-off approach Ohio State Studies • - Initiating Structure - leader behavior aimed at deﬁning and organizing work relationships and roles; establishing clear patterns of organization, communication and ways of getting things done - Consideration - leader behavior aimed at nurturing friendly, warm working relationships, as well as encouraging mutual trust and interpersonal respect within the work unit • Michigan Studies - Production-Oriented Leader • focus - getting things done • uses direct, close supervision • many written an unwritten rules - Employee-Oriented Leader • focus - relationships • less direct, close supervision • fewer written or unwritten rules • displays concern for people and their needs - Leadership Grid - an approach to understanding a leader’s or manager’s concern for results (production) and concern for people 2 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 Figure 12.1: The Leadership Grid - Organization Man (5,5) - a middle-of-the-road leader 3 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Authority Compliance Manager (9,1) - a leader who emphasizes efﬁcient production - Country Club Manager (1,0) - a leader who has great concern for people and little concern for production, attempts to avoid conﬂict, and seeks to be well liked 4 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Team Manager (9,9) - a leader who builds a highly productive team of committed people - Impoverished Manager (1,1) - a leader who exerts just enough effort to get by (1,1) should be on the bottom left of grid - Paternalistic “father knows best” Manager (9+9) - a leader who promises reward and threatens punishment 5 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Opportunistic “what’s in it for me” Manager (Opp) - a leader whose style aims to maximize self-beneﬁt - Fiedler’s Contingency Theory - ﬁt between leader’s need structure and favorableness of leader’s situation determine the team’s effectiveness • least preferred coworker (LPC) - single person leader has least preferred to work with - high LPC - leaders who describe LPC in positive terms - low LPC - leaders who describe LPC in negative terms - Situation Favorableness • task structure - number of rules, regulations, and procedures one likes to have in order to get the work done position power - legitimate authority given by organization that person belong to • - being able to grant rewards or punishments • leader-member relations - how leader interacts with coworkers and subordinates 6 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Path-Goal Theory of Leadership • a - Vroom-Yetten-Jago Normative Decision Model • decide - can make the decision on their own without the opinion of anyone else • consult individually - person goes around and tells each person the situation and asks for their input • consult group - discuss the issue as a whole and asks for the groups input • facilitate - calls group together as a group consult, but the leader also puts in their input and the group makes a decision together • delegate - has the group discuss it alone without the leader and they make a decision together manager should use the decision method most appropriate for a given situation 7 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - The Situational Leadership Model - Leader-Member Exchange • leaders form two groups of followers - in-groups (inner circle) • members similar to leader • given greater responsibilities, rewards, attention • within leader’s inner circle of communication • high job satisfaction and organizational commitment, low turnover • stress from added responsibilities - out-Groups (outer circle) • managed by formal rules and policies 8 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 • given less attention; fewer rewards • outside the leader’s communication circle • more likely to retaliate against the organization • stress from being left out of the communication network - Inspirational Leadership Theories • transformational leadership - inspire and excite followers to high level of performance • charismatic leadership - use the force of personal abilities and talents to have profound effects on followers • authentic leadership - have a conscious and well-developed sense of values and act in ways that are consistent to their value system - Emotional Intelligence - ability to recognize and manage your own emotions and the emotions of others Figure 12.6: Five Types of Followers - Alienated • they’re passive in their behavior, they don’t have enough guts to stand up or challenge the panel that is speaking to the group • they do have their own opinions and ideas - Sheep • group of people who ﬂock together that do not think independently or critically - Effective Follower • the group companies would like to see more of • they contribute to the company, work harder and smarter for the company, and are willing to contribute ideas to the company - Yes People • people that are active in the company and are considered hard workers • committed to the company but are willing to be followers, and do not think for themselves 9 Tuesday, April 5, 2016 - Survivors • a person that somehow always chooses the best solution when faced with a crisis or challenge int the workplace • can recognize problems that are coming in the future much faster than the average person • make low risk decisions when recognizing the problem that’s coming • “better safe than sorry” 10