A room is heated by an iron that is left plugged in. Is this a heat or work interaction? Take the entire room, including the iron, as the system.
World History 2 Imperialism II: India and Africa India • Colonization Considered the jewel of British Empire • East India Company A joint stock company; royally chartered Bought stuff in India, brought back to Britain and sold 17th century interested in spices 18th century interested in coffee and tea Set up trading forts in India with permission of Mughals Powerful East India Company, rising power of local princes, decline of power of Mughal Empire all allowed the British to establish themselves as the military power Sepoys Indian soldiers in British army • Sepoy Revolt (1857) British soldiers taught Sepoys to rip off gunpowder paper coated in animal fat Sepoys were vegetarians and they resented this Thousands of British killed, hundreds of thousands of Sepoys killed After this, British take control of India • British reforms and the Raj Declare Queen Victoria as Empress of India in 1877 Government set up by British known as the Raj • Lower government contained many Indians Encouraged production of opium in India to be sold to China • In 1729, 200 chests of opium imported to China • In 1838, 40,000 chests of opium imported to China • Impact of British Rule Western education • Argued westernstyle education was very beneficial to upperclass Indians • However, not all had access to the education Railroads • Established system of railroads Banking and mining • Established helpful modern banking and mining systems Landholdings • Plantation left many peasants landless, peasants moved to urban cities Textile industries • India produced high quality textiles before British • British set up factories to produce Indian textiles more efficiently and cheaper, destroyed native textile businesses Caste system • Reinforced the original caste system • This meant less social mobility and more separation between castes Poverty • Poverty was extreme and worse under British rule • 1910 life expectancy 26 years old Africa • The scramble Berlin Conference European officials met to decide how to split up Africa • Treaties Decided to split up Africa through protection treaties European officials would negotiate treaties with local tribe leaders and chiefs European powers disbanded local powers through these treaties • Military advantages Europe was extremely more militarily advanced than Africa Europe attempted to keep fighting between Europeans and Africans • Conflict among the colonizers: Boer War First Europeans to live in South Africa was the Dutch • Their descendants became known as Boers At end of 18th century, British arrive in South Africa Boers (or Afrikaners) migrate further into Africa because of British • Created the Orange Free State and Transvaal to live in • British find diamonds in Orange Free State and Transvaal Cecil Rhodes encouraged British to control diamonds This all lead to the Boer War, the British v. Boer • British win and set up the Union of South Africa • British decide to leave Boers in charge Africa under European Rule: Belgian Congo • Acquisition Leopold II sent Stanley to negotiate contracts and treaties with Congo leaders Used the Congo as his own personal property • Regime of terror Used the Congo to extract rubber and ivory from the colony Forced the population into forced labor Formed the Force Publique (FP) to force the Congo to work for him • Officers of FP were Europeans, soldiers were often African • FP cut off hands • People were executed, maimed and raped • Forced labor Rubber was extracted and spread on workers’ backs to dry, then ripped off • Opposition in Europe Edmund Morel • Clerk and journalist in Liverpool that noticed ships from the Congo arrived with rubber and left with guns and ammo • Began a journalistic investigation for happenings in the Congo Joseph Conrad also teamed up with Morel and forced Leopold to change things in the Congo Test 2 Origins of World War I Nationalism • Multinational empires Empires with many diverse diversities and races • ex. Russia had many Poles that lived in Russia, but were Polish AustroHungarian Empire • Ruled over lands with people that weren’t German or Hungarian • Contained a lot of Slavic people that felt nationalistic, wanted their own nationstate • Balkans Geographic area with many different Slavic people in eastern Europe Balkans were nationalistic because of Serbia and BosniaHerzegovina • Many Serbs lived in BosniaHerzegovina under AustroHungarian rule, while many Serbs lived in their own free state of Serbia • Serbia and the Serbs of BosniaHerzegovina wanted to unite as a country of Serbs Diplomacy • Bismarckian system Germany are becoming a industrial and military power Otto van Bismarck decided to construct the “Bismarckian system” • Offers to become allies with Austria, Russia and Italy This now meant Germany, AustriaHungary, Russia and Italy were all in an alliance, leaving France on its own Britain was very skeptical of the growing Germany • Realignments Bismarck’s predecessors didn’t renew alliance with Russia • This allows France to create an alliance with Russia Germany went to Britain for an alliance, Britain declines and sides with France and Russia Triple Alliance • Germany, AustriaHungary and Italy Triple Entante • Britain, France and Russia If just one country from each alliance gets into a conflict, the rest of Europe will follow Arms Race • European countries begin to stockpile weapons and building armies • Germany began to build a strong navy Balkans Turmoil • Bosnia and Herzegovina Extremely Serbian, wanted to be • Assassination of Franz Ferdinand Archduke of AustriaHungary travels to Serbia to make amends with Serbia Serbian nationalist assassinates Ferdinand and his wife • Austrian ultimatum Austria demands apology and conducts an investigation in Serbia Serbia didn’t allow Austria to investigate in Serbia Austria prepares for war against Serbia • Mobilization for War AustriaHungary declares war on Serbia, and France mobilizes their army About two weeks later, the alliances have declared war on each other WWI: Course of the War Strategies • Schlieffen Plan German plan designed to prevent a war on two fronts Involved invaded northern France from northern Germany and cutting through Belgium Planned to capture Paris The plan ultimately fails because of changes in technology • First Battle of the Marne (1914) and the advent of trench warfare This established this would be a war of attrition in the trenches • Basically trying to wear the other side down Along the Marne river, both sides dug trenches Men fought across trenches, land between trenches was No Man’s Land No Man’s Land was reinforced by barbed wire • Battle of Verdun (1916) 700,000 deaths A bloody battle where an estimated 600,000 artillery rounds were fired • Somme River 60,000 British in one day Life in the Trenches • Life in trenches was probably best in the dead of winter Everything was frozen, nothing was wet • Rain could flood the trenches, sometimes men would die • Rats and flies also infested the trenches Strategies (cont) • Stalemate and choices New allies • Allies wanted to bring in the US New fronts • Allies tried to create diversions, especially to the Ottomans • British decided to start a battle near Gallipoli (near Ottoman Empire) to drain German resources from Germany • British used Arabicspeaking Brit T.E. Lawrence to stir up Arab nationalism New weapons • Tanks, planes and deadly gases were introduced to warfare in WWI • Used tear gas, chlorine gas, and mustard gas • Entrance of US Didn’t want to join war, but German submarines sunk the Lusitania, which contained over 100 Americans German stops submarine warfare, but resumes it in January 1917 Enters war in April 1917 • Withdrawal of Russia Russia withdrew in 1917 End of war • Treaty of Versailles “War Guilt” clause • France placed blame on Germany and their allies for all destruction and suffering in WWI • Forced Germans to pay huge amounts of money for reconstruction • Germany was also demilitarized Territorial provisions • Germany had to give up Alsace and Lorraine • Germany also lost territory of Poland and Yugoslavia • Austria and Hungary split up, Habsburgs are gone • Effects Loss of life and demographic effects • Estimated 910 million soldiers died in WWI Colonials • Effected the colonial populations greatly • Many colonials served in WWI Women • Women filled in jobs that men usually did during the war • Helped push towards a women’s rights movement Psychological impact: Lost Generation • Basically a whole generation was lost • Soldiers that survived were depressed and psychologically effected Fascism • Citizens looked to government to regulate economies and business • People wanted to see a greater role in government • Extreme cases of this created fascism, especially in Germany Russian Revolution Russia on the Eve of the Revolution • Rapid social and economic change Russia industrializes very late, around the 1880s The industrialization is very rapid Middle class grows and becomes more prosperous as a result • As a result, the middle class wants a role in Russian government 80% of Russia was rural farm workers • These peasants have always wanted their own land Prime Minister Stolypin attempted to give some of the peasants their own land • Many peasants just worked for the Mir the “village farm” Nobility of Russia still dominates the government at this time • World War I Russia mobilizes their army quickly It’s estimated the Russians lost half of their 15 million men army • Many Russians died but many also deserted Russia Nicolas II and Alexandra ruled Russia at the time Caused civilian population to suffer • Food shortages • Damaged railroads • Inflation • Government Consisted of a monarchy and a representative assembly known as the Duma • Bad relations between Duma and Nicolas Government becomes corrupt and incompetent Rasputin • A clergyman that “cured” the Romanov prince’s hemophilia • Uses this to give him and his friends positions in government • March Revolution (1917) Strike in St. Petersburg • Women start a “food riot”, protesting food prices and inflation • By the night, about 200,000 people in the streets Provisional government • Duma is sympathetic towards people, Nicolas abolishes them • Army also decides not to fire into crowd • Nicolas sees he has no power, steps down • A “provisional government” takes over, basically the middle class • Kerensky is a prime minister in the provisional government, has to deal with many internal issues • Soviets have been forming counsels that represent the working class A type of “parallel” government; very radical Problems of the war • Internal problems clash with the war fought in Germany • Bolshevik Revolution (November Revolution) Arrival of Lenin • After the provisional government takes power, Lenin returns to Russia from exile • Germany assists the return of Lenin Lenin’s interpretation of Marx • Marxism didn’t work in Russia yet because capitalism hadn’t “matured” to stir up the working class • Said it was his job to “fast forward” this process • Indoctrinated the working class of Marxism • Campaigned with Trotsky and Stalin for power using the slogan “peace, land, and bread” Worked with soviets to campaign his idea St. Petersburg soviet • Eventually took possession of the St. Petersburg soviet and the city itself; overthrew the provisional government Civil war • Reds (Bolsheviks) vs. Whites (middle class, nobility, counterrevolutionists) • During the civil war, started to carry out war communism • Bolsheviks win the civil war in 1922 • Lenin’s Russia New Economic Policy (NEP) • Formed in 1921, tried to jump start the economy • Land temporarily given to peasants, small industry given back to private owners; basically a temporary installation of capitalism Constitution and the Communist Party • Constitution has no reference to Communist Party Soviet Union under Stalin Lenin’s successors: Stalin vs. Trotsky • Trotsky’s “Permanent Revolution” Trotsky’s approach to Marxism Decided the socialist changes needed to happen immediately internationally • Stalin’s “Socialism in one country” Stalin’s approach was to carry out the revolution in the Soviet Union • Stalin’s victory Stalin secures his victory as leader of the revolution Stalin was a big part of the Bolshevik Revolution; wasn’t the most intellectual man Stalin exiles Trotsky from Russia, finds refuge in Mexico Five Year Plans (1928) • Ended the NEP Stalin hated the NEP because of its capitalist nature NEP wasn’t as effective in late 20’s as it was early 20’s Stalin hated the Kulaks • “Upper class” peasants • Became wealthy because of the private land given to them • Goals and economic objectives Make Russia an industrial superpower in 5 years Heavy industry (steel, iron, etc.) was to triple their production Lighter industry was to double their production Agriculture was to increase production by 50% • Peasants and land hunger Practiced collectivization with farming basically farming on a community land • This meant your land, livestock and farm equipment was given to the government • Peasant response • Peasants had high resistance destroyed livestock and farm equipment • Collectivization resulted in massive famine resulting in 10 million+ deaths • Factories Set ridiculous daily quotas for workers to meet • Economic results: Russia is 3rd largest industrial power Russia met its industrial goals Peasants and urban workers made this possible Stakhanov legendary Russian worker, “poster child” that Russian government used • Possibly didn’t exist; was said he mined 16x his daily quota Life in Stalinist Russia • Terrorism, purges, and show trials “Purged” out any counterrevolutionists or capitalists • Either sent to Siberia or executed “Show trials” were trials that were given to counterrevolutionists to appease the people • Wasn’t a fair judicial trial, usually no evidence • Housing and necessities Episodes of famine, shortages of basic consumer goods • World’s first socialist country Many people looked fondly on Russia This inspired many movements throughout the West • Propaganda Many things were censored; everything had to reflect values of the government Natural sciences had to reflect values of government too • Believed that environment shaped people • Chemist Lysenko was funded by Russian government to find chemicals to grow wheat in cold climates • Lysenko’s studies were wrong, but supported the values of the Soviet Union The Casualties • 20 million perished between 1930 and 1941 10 million in collectivization 89 million arrested 1 million executed and rest sent to labor camps Ethnic minorities • Killed national deviationists those attempting to stir up foreign nationalism Executed 30,00040,000 military officers Hitler and the Rise of Fascism Fascism vs. Communism • Fascism is an extreme rightward political idea, communism is an extreme leftward political idea • Fascism focuses on nationalism and possibly racism • Communism focuses on a “perfect society” Causes of Fascism: Great Depression • Starts with stock market crash in October 1929 People began to invest heavily in the stock market, creating a surplus of household goods Smarter investors pulled out of the market, caused other investors to pull out too • Banks start recalling European loans, has effects internationally • The Great Depression causes the government to have a bigger economic role Government started infrastructure projects Government also started building up military Weimar Republic • Composition President 7 year terms Reichstag a German Parliament • Occupation of the Ruhr Valley in western Germany used as an industrial cite for coal Germany used to the coal to pay France and Belgium in the Treaty of Versailles Germany fell behind on payments, France decided to occupy the Ruhr and extract coal themselves German miners had opposition to French • Inflation of 1923 Germany decided to print money to pay back French This caused hyperinflation • Dawes Plan Plan to pull Germany out of inflation Rescheduled the reformation payments to French to make them more rational US loans money to Germany • Impact on middle class Middle class was nearly destroyed Rise of Hitler • Background From lower middle class family, rejected from an art school Spent much time in Vienna Joins German army in WWI, is fairly successful • Life after WWI Joins the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) Moves up as a leader of the Nazis • Munich Beer Hall Putsch 1923 Failed attempt by Nazis to overthrow the government • Prison Hitler is imprisoned because of his involvement of the attempted coup Wrote Mein Kampf, Hitler’s world views and racist thoughts • Propaganda Believed in using repetitive, simple ideas Also used lies so audacious, many believed they were real Also used public rallies to their advantage • Reichstag Nazis run for seats in Reichstag By 1932, Nazis are the biggest party in Reichstag Hindenberg (current president) names Hitler as Chancellor Reichstag was burned in an act of terror • Enabling Act 1933 Because of the political crisis, this Hitler dictatorial power for four years Hitler used this opportunity to create the Nazi state The Nazi State • Terrorism Used the S.A. and the S.S. against political opposition and Jews • Military expansion Germany’s military was demilitarized by Treaty of Versailles Building up the military gave Germans work again Also started Autobahn and Volkswagon projects • Policy towards Jews Nuremburg Laws in 1935 began to make life for Jews miserable • Jews couldn’t marry nonJews, Jews couldn’t have certain position • Rallies World War II: Beginnings Failure of Collective Security Nazi Expansion • Race and space Wanted more “lebensraum” for his Germans (living space) Wanted to unify all German peoples • Many ethnic Germans left out of Germany • Sudetenland, Austria • Rearmament Hitler begins to build back Germany’s military • Planes, tanks, submarines Extinguished all other political powers By 1935, Hitler reinstitutes the draft Britain and France “appease” the building of the German army, didn’t want another war Chamberlain (British Prime Minister) has to convince Daladier (French Prime Minister) to agree on this “appeasement” • Britain didn’t want another war • British had “guilt” from what Germany went through after WWI • Germany served as a “buffer” state between Britain/France and the Soviet Union • Anschluss Hitler takes over Austria, to “unify Germans” • Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia talks to Hitler and allows him to have Sudetenland, as long as he leaves the rest of Czechoslovakia alone Eventually takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia • Pact of Steel Hitler creates an alliance between Germany and Italy • NaziSoviet Pact Hitler and Stalin agree to a nonaggression pact In the event of a war, Germany and the Soviet Union wouldn’t attack each other Also agreed if eastern Europe fell, Germany would get western Poland, Soviets would get eastern Poland • Poland 1939 September 31, 1939 Hitler invades Poland Early War • Blitzkrieg “Lightning war” fast, moving warfare Air force plays a huge role in WWII Luftwaffe (German air force) built up by Hitler’s friend, Goering Germany took over many neighboring territories with blitzkrieg • Fall of France France was invaded by Germany, fell within weeks Collaborationists French weren’t controlled by Germany, but still followed Germany’s orders • Battle of Britain Hitler anted to launch invasion of Britain • Decided he needed to take out the Royal Air Force first Hitler bombed Britain, and eventually started bombing civilian cities, including London British used subway systems as bomb shelters Britain decided to keep life going on during war • “Keep Calm and Carry On” Prime Minister Winston Churchill helped Britain accomplish this The Holocaust Hitler’s Racial Theories: The New Order • Nordic peoples Scandinavians and Dutch Had favorable view of Nordic people, they were more like Germans Latin peoples People like French Viewed them as underachievers and lazy Slavic peoples Considered “subhumans”, worked them as slaves Jews Made antisemitism laws to make Jewish life a “living hell” Laws went to extreme of denying Jews to have pet dogs Caused many Jews to flee Germany Concentration camps Deportation Jewish families were deported to “work camps” Eastern European Jews, German Jews, French Jews all were forced in these camps “Final Solution” Nazis eventually rounded up Jews and systematically killed the Jews SS and its leader Himmler was in change of the death of camps Auschwitz was the biggest concentration camp, estimated 1,200 people died here everyday Communists, religious minorities, Gypsies, disabled people, and homosexuals were also persecuted 6 million+ people died in these camps Film: “Night and Fog”