Refrigerant-134a enters a diffuser steadily as saturated vapor at 600 kPa with a velocity of 160 m/s, and it leaves at 700 kPa and 40°C. The refrigerant is gaining heat at a rate of 2 kJ/s as it passes through the diffuser. If the exit area is 80 percent greater than the inlet area, determine (a) the exit velocity and (b) the mass flow rate of the refrigerant.
SOC 1003: Intro to Sociology Dr. James Stobaugh Study Guide Exam 2 Major Concepts Major People Major Terms Social Structure Social Structure – typical patterns of a group that guides behavior Elements – frameworks that organize and limit behavior Institutions Social Practice Social Class Statuses and Roles Groups Norms Boundaries Stigma – attributes that devalue one’s identity and disqualifies full social acceptance Social Marginality – partial stigma Social Class – large group of similar income, education, occupation, and prestige o Property o Power o Prestige – respect or regard Occupations Salary Education Abstract thought Autonomy Status – position with expectations, rules, duties (“Who am I”), how a one is defined o Ascribed Status – birthgiven or involuntary Sec, class, race, age o Achieved States – chosen, merited, or gained through direct effort Criminality, occupation o Master Status – single most defining status “Who/what are you” “What do you do” o Symbols – objects that indicate status Cars, jewelry, clothes o Inconsistency – mixture of high and low ranks in elements of social class Roles – the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status Dramaturgical Analysis – the idea that life is performed as a drama on a stage dictated and directed by society, impression management o Front Stage – performing, the places where roles are acted and interaction occurs o Back Stage – privacy, the places no role or interaction occurs (e.g. bathroom, bedroom) Expectation – behaviors expected of status Performance – acting the role Conflict – competing commands by at least two statuses (e.g. worker, student, significant other) Strain – incompatible demands of a single status (e.g. working mother) Exit – disengaging from essential status o Doubt o Searching for alternatives o Turning point o New identity FaceSaving Behavior – attempt to change the perspective of an (often embarrassing, not appropriate, or mistaken) action/event o Studied nonobservance – acting as if an event didn’t occur Groups Groups – at least two people who interact and share a common identity Primary – facetoface and emotionbased interaction, small, less specialized o Family, friends Secondary – larger, specialized, impersonal, goal oriented, limited length of existence o Classes, jobs, teams InGroups – strong identity and loyalty toward OutGroups – antagonistic feelings toward o Double standard (what is excusable for ingroup member is inexcusable for out group members) Changing Societies Hunter/gatherer Pastoral/horticultural – domestication, tools, larger groups, labor division Agricultural – plow, development of cities Industrial – steam engine, transportation, fuelpowered machines PostIndustrial – information, microprocessor Social Network Clique – cluster within a larger group Small World Phenomenon – connections between people who appear to have no direct tie o Milgram’s Six Degrees of Separation Letter experiment, New Haven to New Jersey, average of six exchanges Small Group – few enough members to enable direct interaction Group Dynamics Dyad – two, smallest possible group, most intimate and unstable most intimate Triad – three, coalitions (members teaming up against other members) least stable Groups of Four or more – more relationships as group size increases o Diffusion of Responsibility – assumption others will take action Kitty Genovese – stabbed and raped, heard by apartment tenants, no one e most stable helped, “someone else will do it” Mandatory reporters o Peer Pressure (Asch’s Card Experiment) Group think – narrowing of thought, collective tunnel vision Conflicting opinions are seen as disloyal/threats e.g. Pearl Harbor’s defense, Vietnam conflict, Iraq’s WMDs Voluntary Association De Tocqueville termed the US a “nation of joiners” Functions o Interest and enjoyment o Identity o Governs o Promotes social order/change Purpose – personal gain (e.g. enjoyment, conscience) Olson’s “Free Rider” problem – tendency to take advantage without contributing) o More common in larger groups Iron Law of Oligarchy – tendency of small groups/subgroups to hold power/control o Perpetuating, several generations of friends/family (Bush, Clinton, Kennedy) Bureaucracy Changing Times Traditional Societies – selfproduced, selfprofit, “cottage industry” Rationality – data, trends, efficiency o Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Bureaucracy Clear levels of authority, chain of command Labor division Written rules Records Impersonal interaction Benefits – efficiency, no personal agendas Disadvantages – dysfunction, lack of communication, errors o Red Tape – so bound by rules that requirements defy logic Goal displacement – achieved goals lead to new goals (bureaucracies never die) o NATO, March of Dimes Deviance Deviance – violation of significant norms (behavior, belief, condition) Created and defined by audience, relative to time, place, and location Degrees o Mild transgression of folkways o Infringement of mores o Violation of laws Social Control – systematic practices to encourage conformity and discourage deviance Internal – personal conscious, “right and wrong” (“Will I get caught”) (e.g. knowing parent will yell) External – physical outside forces, police (parents yelling) Labelling Theory – the significance of reputations on the path to or away from deviance Functionalist Perspective (function) Enforcement/punishment clarifies rules Unites groups (insiders/outsiders) Benefits – promote social change by drawing attention to rules/concepts (e.g. Rosa Parks) Negatives – possibility of threat (excess deviance can cause a society to collapse) Conflict Perspective (power and social inequality) Criminal Justice System – tool designed to maintain the power of the powerful, and oppress the poor (most prison inmates are low class)