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List the number of valence electrons for each family in

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 25E Chapter 8

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 25E

Problem 25E

List the number of valence electrons for each family in the periodic table, and explain the relationship between the number of valence electrons and the resulting chemistry of the elements in the family.

a.        alkali metals

b.        alkaline earth metals

c.        halogens

d.        oxygen family

Step-by-Step Solution:
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Psyc 3120 lecture 9/10 notes February 23 & 25, 2016 CHAPTER 9 MIDDLE CHILDHOOD: PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ADHD • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder o (ADD is not scientifically correct) • Externalizing behavior disorder o Very clear to other people the child has a ADHD by their actions • 3-­‐5% of school aged children are diagnosed • Boys are 5-­‐10 times more likely to be diagnosed • Normal intelligence o All kids diagnosed with ADHD are tested at the average intelligence level. They have to in order to be considered to have this disorder because it’s a behavioral issue it has nothing to do with cognitive abilities. If the child is below average it is probably not their behavior that is causing delays in school o Sometimes kids feel like they’re not as smart as other kids because their grades suffer due to their lack of focus to learn/test • Etiology (cause) o Early theory § Minimal brain dysfunction o Current theory § Neurological imbalance, frontal lobe dysfunction, or neurotransmitter problems o Typically heredity (Runs in the family) • Diagnostic Criteria o Symptoms must persist for at least 6 months o Symptom should have begun before age 7 o Symptoms present in at least two situation § Example: in therapy & school o Disorder impairs functioning § Has to have a problem in school or with making friends o Symptoms not explained by another disorder such as § Anxiety § Schizophrenia § Mania (bipolar) § Dissociative disorder (thinking about being somewhere else) § Personality disorder Psyc 3120 lecture 9/10 notes February 23 & 25, 2016 § Developmental disorder • Symptoms o Three categories § Inattention • Fails to pay close attention to details o Issues problem solving in math • Makes careless errors o Grammar, spelling • Doesn’t appear to listen o Looking elsewhere • Does not follow through on instructions or chores o They forget what they were supposed to do because something else catches their eye and takes away their short attention span • Has trouble organizing tasks or activities • Dislikes or avoids sustained mental effort o Refuse to do homework because it takes a lot of extra effort. Long and strenuous task for them that would take most kids 10 minutes • Loses materials • Easily distracted • Forgetful § Hyperactivity • Squirms or fidgets • Inappropriately leaves seat • Inappropriately runs and climbs • Has trouble quietly playing • Appears driven or “on the go” • Talks excessively § Impulsivity • Answers questions before asked • Has trouble waiting their turn • Interrupts or intrudes on others • Functioning o Poor social skills o Messy appearance o Physical aggression § Misperceive the situation. o Discipline difficulties o Poor school performance Psyc 3120 lecture 9/10 notes February 23 & 25, 2016 o Increased family stress § Hard to go out in public and do things with a wild child, always being a disruption in restaurants or trying to run away at parks • Coexisting problems o Externalizing behavior disorders § Oppositional defiant disorder • Don’t listen to the parents/other authorities, swearing & getting aggressive with them § Conduct disorder • Typically a result of oppositional defiant disorder if its not addressed • Kid associates with other kids that act like them and they become delinquents essentially, stealing, vandalism, being bad o Learning Disabilities § Hard to learn due to short attention span o School underachievement § Cant learn the material well, don’t remember it well, cant test well, leading to bad grades o Poor self esteem § Kids feel dumb because they cant learn like the other kids and they don’t have the ability to rationalize and see the positive • Treatment o Drugs § Ritalin, Dexedrine § Negatives • Doesn’t work for everyone • Must be at optimal level • Long term improvement is questionable • Can completely change persons personality • Kids don’t always take them, older kids sell them • Kids get dependent thinking they cannot function without them o Parent training § PCIT • Parent child interactive therapy • 16 weeks • used for several different disorders Psyc 3120 lecture 9/10 notes February 23 & 25, 2016 • child directed o teach parent to let the child lead and follow their needs • parent directed o teach parent how to discipline the child § time out for short increment (3min) & the child has to be quiet the entire time. When they get out of time out they have to perform whatever task it was that they didn’t do that landed them in time out in the 1 place st o Social skills training o Behavior therapy Psyc 3120 lecture 9/10 notes February 23 & 25, 2016 CHAPTER 10 MIDDLE CHILDHOOD: SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT LAWRENCE KOHLBERG • Cognitive developmental approach to moral development • Influenced by Piaget • Clinical interview procedure • Moral dilemmas o “what was the right thing to do” • Heinz Dilemma o Dilemma that includes obeying the law vs saving someone • Test geared towards males • Mostly based on western culture • Reasoning is more important than content • Stages are universal • Don’t reach the highest stage until adolescence & even then not everyone reaches this stage • LEVEL ONE o Pre-­‐conventional morality (self interest) o Stage one: punishment § “ I wont do it because I don’t want to get punished” o Stage two: reward § “I wont do it because I want a reward” • LEVEL TWO o Conventional morality (social morality) o Stage three: interpersonal relations § “I wont do it because I want people to like me” o Stage four: social order § “I wont do it because it would break the law” • LEVEL THREE o Post conventional Morality (abstract ideals) o Stage five: Social contract § “I wont do it because I’m obliged not to” o Stage six: universal rights § “I wont do it because its not right • moral development is very slow and gradual • stages 1 & 2 decrease in early adolescence • stage 3 increases through middle adolescence and then declines • stage 4 reasoning rises over the teenage years Psyc 3120 lecture 9/10 notes February 23 & 25, 2016 • few people move up to 5 • stage 6 is a matter of speculation • moral judgment does not equal moral behavior o how you respond & how you actually act can be very different • moral reasoning is highly correlated with IQ, educational level, and perspective taking skills • child rearing practices help to enhance moral reasoning CAROLE GILLIAN • Female moral development • Compassionate concern instead of social injustice • Stages of moral development 1. Orientation toward individual survival a. what's best for themselves 2. Goodness as self sacrifice a. other peoples needs comes before theirs 3. Morality of nonviolence a. establishing a balance between your wants and others wants; compromise SENSE OF SELF • others perceptions (parents peers and so forth) • social values, expectations, notions of ideal • experiences of self in the world • body image, health perceptions, sense of strength • self examination (analysis of personal assets and liabilities) SELF ESTEEM • high from 6-­‐12 and decreases after that • individuals overall & specific positive/negative evaluation • influences o child rearing practices o attributions (why something is happening) § mastery oriented attributions • “this is hard but I can do it” § learned helplessness • “I don’t think I can do it” Psyc 3120 lecture 9/10 notes February 23 & 25, 2016 SELF CONCEPT • how you identify yourself • influences o academic o social o athletic o emotional

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Chapter 8, Problem 25E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

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List the number of valence electrons for each family in