Name an element in the fourth period (row) of the periodic table with
a. five valence electrons.
b. four 4p electrons.
c. three 3d electrons.
d. a complete outer shell.
Ionian Enlightenment Thales, 585 BC Proposed water was basic stuff Anaximander, 565 BC Thought that the ultimate stuff couldn’t be identified w/ any known thing; called Aperion or boundless Anaximenes, 545 BC Thought air was the basic material; all manifest matter was the result of “refraction” or “condensation” World was understandable in terms of natural phenomena “Stuff in the world” must be composed of the same “substance” Zeno’s Paradox (Zeno of Elia) Series of paradoxes to explain infinity Denies possibility of motion from one point to another Is matter discrete or continuous Democritus of Abdena Father of atomism Idea that there is an ultimate, uncuttable constituent of all matter “Nothing exists but atoms and the void. All else is opinion” Aristotle Founder of formal logic Found the idea od the void rationally repugnant and matter was continuous 5 basic elements: earth, fire, water, air, and the aether Basic logic and scientific method Humans get conclusions by logical process using arguments Argument 1: If an obj. is a car, then it has wheels. That obj. has wheels, therefore it is a car Invalid Induction Inferring a general principle based on specific obs. “If A, then B. B, therefore A” (B A) Argument 2: if an obj. is a car, it has wheels. That obj. is a car, therefore it has wheels Valid