According to Coulomb's Law, which pair of charged particles has the lowest potential energy?
a. a particle with a 1- charge separated by 150 pm from a particle with a 2+ charge
b. a particle with a 1- charge separated by 150 pm from a particle with a 1+ charge
c. a particle with a 1- charge separated by 100 pm from a particle with a 3+ charge
Wednesday, March 16, 2016 Chapter 8 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors - Autobiographical Memory (AM): memory for speciﬁc experiences from your life; episodic or semantic; mental time travel; multidimensional (sensory, emotional, sensory) - Sensory component: Greenberg and Rubin: focused on patients who cannot recognize objects; these patients also experienced loss of AM; shows that visual experience plays a role in forming and retrieving of AM - Cabeza and coworkers: comparing brain activation caused by autobiographical memory and laboratory memory; showed participants pictures taken by patients and patients taken by someone else; both types of photos activated similar structures (medial temporal lobe for episodic and parietal cortex for processing of scenes); autobiographical photos (taken by the participant) activated the prefrontal cortex (information about self) and the hippocampus (recollection); demonstrates richness of autobiographical memories - Memory over lifespan: signiﬁcant events in a person’s life, events that are highly emotional, or major transition points are remembered well - Participants over the age of 40 asked t recall events in their lives; memory is high for rent events and for events that occurred in adolescence and early adulthood (age 10-30); reminiscence bump is period between 10 and 30 where memory is enhanced; three theories why: • Self-image hypothesis: period of assuming person’s self- image; memory is enhanced for events that occur as a person’s self image or life identity is being formed; people assume identities during adolescence and found adulthood; many transitions during this time cognitive hypothesis: encoding is better during periods of rapid change (signiﬁcant • during this age); encoding is better during periods of rapid change that are followed by stability; evidence from those who emigrated to the US after young adulthood indicates reminiscence bump is shifted (shifted to around age that the person emigrated) 1 Wednesday, March 16, 2016 • cultural life script: culturally shared expectations structure recall; each person has personal life story, an understanding of culturally expected events; personal events are easier to recall when they ﬁt the cultural life script - Emotional events remembered more easily and more vividly; emotion improves memory, becomes greater with time (may enhance consolidation); brain activity in amygdala • weapons focus: tendency to attend to a weapon when witnessing a crime - In a study, emotionally arousing pictures are remembered better than neutral stimuli, and even more so when the patients are under stress - Flashbulb memories: memory for circumstances surrounding shocking, highly charged important events; 9/11/01, Kennedy assassination, Challenger explosion, etc.; remember where you were and what you were doing; highly emotional, vivid, very detailed - Flashbulbs are not “photographic”; they can change with the passage of time; initial description after event is called baseline, later reports are compared to baseline in repeated recall; results suggest that these memories an be inaccurate or lacking in detail; participants still report that they are conﬁdent and that the memories seem very vivid; number of details remembered decline over time at the same rate for ﬂashbulb and everyday memories, but everyday memories are reported to be less accurate by participants (belief) - Narrative rehearsal hypothesis: why ﬂashbulb has belief component; repeated viewing/ hearing of event after event; TV, newspaper, etc introduce errors into memory without you knowing - Memory is what actually happened plus person’s knowledge, experiences, and expectations - Bartlett’s “war of the ghosts” experiment: had participants remember a story from a different culture; repeated reproduction; over time, reproduction becomes shorter and less accurate, and the story changes to become more consistent with person’s own culture - Source memory: process of determining origins of our memories - Source monitoring error: misidentifying source of memory; also called source misattributions 2 Wednesday, March 16, 2016 - Cryptoamnesia: unconscious plagiarism of another’s work due to a lack of recognition of its original source - Jacoby et al.: participants given a list of famous and non-famous names; after 24 hours, some non-famous names were misidentiﬁed as famous; some non-famous names were familiar and the participants misattributed the source of familiarity; failed to identify the source as the last that had been read the previous day - Memory can be inﬂuenced by inferences that people make based on their experiences - Pragmatic inferences: based on knowledge gained through experience; memory often includes information that is implied by or is consistent with the to-be-remembered information but was not explicitly stated - Schema: knowledge about some aspect of the environment; post-ofﬁce, ball game, classroom - Script: conception of sequence of actions that usually occurs during a particular experience; going to a restaurant, playing tennis - Schemas and scripts inﬂuence memory: memory can include information not actually experienced but inferred because it is expected and consistent with the schema; ofﬁce waiting room: books not present but mentioned in memory task; constructive nature of memory can lead to errors or false memories - Advantages: allows us to ﬁll in the blanks; cognition is creative, needed to understand language, solve problems - Disadvantages: sometimes we make errors; sometimes we misattribute the source of information (published study vs. tabloid); was it actually presented or was it inferred - Misinformation effect: misleading information presented after a person witnesses an event can change how that person describes the event later; called an MPI: misleading post event information; retroactive interference - Loftus and coworkers: see slides of trafﬁc accident with stop sign; introduced yield sign MPI; participants said they saw a yield sign when it was a stop sign - Loftus: hear “smashed” or “hit” to describe accident; ones who heard smashed said the cars were going faster than the participants that heard hit - Retroactive interference: more recent learning interferes with memory for something in the past; original memory trace is not replaced just changed 3 Wednesday, March 16, 2016 - Source monitoring error: failure to distinguish source of information; MPI is misattributed to the original source - Hyman and coworkers: participants’ parents gave descriptions of childhood events; participant had conversation about experiences with experimenter and experimenter added new events to the event; participants remembered the false events and thought they actually happened - Testimony by an eyewitness to a crime about he or she saw during the crime may have errors; one of the most convincing types of evidence because jury assumes correct memory; can by inaccurate; mistaken identity, constructive nature of memory - Wells and Bradﬁeld: participants viewed security tapes; everyone identiﬁed gunman when shown pictures later, but actual gunman was not one of the picture options - Errors due to familiarity: source monitoring; person looks familiar so they think it is because of security tape - Experiment showed that when two people are in crime scene, bystanders can be identiﬁed as perpetuators because they are familiar - Errors due to suggestion: suggestive questioning (misinformation effect) and conﬁrming feedback (post-identiﬁcation feedback effect) - Conﬁdence in identiﬁcation of criminal increases when given conﬁrming feedback - Conﬁdence in one’s memories may be increased by post event questioning; believe their story is correct because of positive feedback; may make memories easier to retrieve but may not be accurate - Inform witness that perpetrator might not be in lineup; use “ﬁllers” in lineup that look similar to suspect; use sequential presentation (suspects seen one at a time instead of all at once; not simultaneous); improve interviewing techniques (cognitive interview, not asking suggestive questions) 4