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According to Coulomb's Law, which pair of charged

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 55E Chapter 8

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 55E

Problem 55E

According to Coulomb's Law, which pair of charged particles has the lowest potential energy?

a.        a particle with a 1- charge separated by 150 pm from a particle with a 2+ charge

b.        a particle with a 1- charge separated by 150 pm from a particle with a 1+ charge

c.        a particle with a 1- charge separated by 100 pm from a particle with a 3+ charge

Step-by-Step Solution:

Ch.12­arousal/anxiety Anxiety self awareness­ you need to be self aware of your arousal so that you can control your thoughts. Before you decide on your goals, you have to understand your anxiety levels to be able to control your emotions through arousal regulation techniques of Reduction­, maintenance­, Induction­. How people cope with anxiety is more important than the amount of anxiety they experience. Athletes see anxiety as helpful, compared to non­athletes who feel frustrated and sees it as hurtful. Cognitive anxiety reduction techniques­ through meditation learn to clear your mind, concentrate, and reduce muscle tension. ­Autogenic training: tries to produce feelings of warmth and heaviness to produce a relaxed state. A form of meditation Somatic anxiety reduction techniques: ­Progressive relaxation­ training your body to feel the tension in individual muscles through the use of a rating scale so that over time you can learn to regulate the tension in your muscles. Weight example­ given a 10lb and 12 lb. weight blindfolded and asked to determine which is which. At first you wouldn’t know but after exposure to the weights over time you can learn to differentiate. ­ Breathing techniques: learning to control your breathing to reduce anxiety. Learning to breathe through your diaphragm­ learning to breathe this way changes blood chemistry allowing you to get extra oxygen per breath. If you did this now all the extra oxygen would make you tired ­Biofeedback: connected to machines learn to lower your anxiety by monitoring your physiological and autonomic responses: not readily available Multimodal anxiety reduction techniques: Teaches a person specific integrated coping responses, using relaxation and cognitive components to control emotional arousal. It uses both cognitive and somatic techniques ­Stress inoculation training: through the use of shaping and exposure slowly get you control over stressors. Start with something that stresses you a little and conquer it, once done move on to the next level and so on. 4 steps to stress inoculation training (SIT) 1. Prepare for the stressor­ mentally and physically prepare­ tell your self to stay calm 2. Control and handle the stressor­ understand this is the stressor and 3. Cope with feelings of being overwhelmed­ keep focused, think about what’s next 4. Evaluate coping efforts­ how did you do with the stress Hypnosis­ is bringing someone form high arousal state and to try to bring them to an arousal state that is below sleeping while keeping them awake. This process allows the psychologist to get the subject to create realistic simulations because the subject is more open to suggestions. It is based on the fact that in dreams you blackout all external stimulations and focus solely on internal stimuli. The lower the arousal states you can enter the more vivid the hypnosis. The more open to suggestion the greater the benefit of hypnosis and the deeper the trance the more effective it will be. General arousal techniques are more useful in enhancing muscular strength and endurance Stanford hypnosis scale­ a scale of ones ability to be hypnotized. ­ Positive suggestion is always effective in facilitating performance ­ Negative suggestions almost always cause a decrement ­ Responsiveness depends on the individual more than the therapist, being able to be hypnotized doesn’t mean one is gullible or weak. Intelligent people are more open to hypnosis Hypnosis­ use it for anything you will use imagery for­ phobias­ because a phobia raises your arousal. same thing if you squeeze your finger before sleep for months, if you do it before something that raises your arousal you will calm down Hypnosis Stages 1. Induction phase­ this is the bulk of the session aimed at lowering ones arousal 2. Hypnotic phase­ subject is relaxed and open to suggestion and imagines the situation 3. Waking phase­ raising arousal­ waking the person up 4. Posthypnotic phase­ the rest of your life Matching hypothesis­ the anxiety reduction techniques should be matched to the specific problem. If you are having a cognitive anxiety or somatic anxiety you should use the techniques that fit the problem, mental relaxation and physical relaxation respectively. If you aren’t sure or there are aspects of both you should use a mixed technique. Crossover can occur where somatic/cognitive reduction techniques produce cognitive/somatic relaxation Social support should also be matched to the type of anxiety. Coping­ how you deal with stressors. The process of changing your behavior and cognitions to meet the stress caused by external or internal demands Coping categories 1.Problem focused­focus energy into solving the problem. If you have a terrible job you quit. Categories: Information gathering, precompetition and competition plans, goal setting, time management skills, problem solving, increasing effort, self­talk, adhering to rehab programs. Use if situation can be changed 2. Emotion focused coping­ focus on the emotional response to a problem. You regulate the emotional response to the problem that causes stress­ meditation. If someone lost their leg or ability to walk there is no problem to be solved, however you still need to cope with the situation. If there is no solution you need to get over it emotionally. Things you cant change are conditions not problems. Alcoholics anonymous­ “God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, The courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference.” Categories: meditation, relaxation, wishful thinking, reappraisal, self­blame, mental and behavioral withdrawal, and cognitive efforts to change the meaning of the situation Active coping­problem focused taking the problem head on. Over long term this style of coping produced a positive relationship Avoidance coping­Withdrawal coping­ coping by ignoring it­denial, in the moment and over the short term this is a helpful technique in reducing the immediate stress of a competition, but over time it created a negative relationship. At some point you will have to deal with it Socratic dialogue­ questions made to make athletes think to reevaluate their self­ defeating thoughts Corrective experiences­ when someone has a bad experience doing something you have to immediately replace it with a good one otherwise they won’t want to do it again. Its about getting back up after getting knocked down. Bandura­ vicarious learning: modeling appropriate behaviors make it more likely that behavior will be produced. Copying someone to get the rewards of the results or avoiding someone’s ne Self­analysis­ observe your emotions in sports thereby increasing your self­awareness allowing you to regulate your emotions better Learned resourcefulness: by realizing and understanding that you are good at many things you go into a new problem thinking about all the good things you can do and how you can accomplish/overcome this new task even though you may not be good at it. These techniques are taught at autism summer camps­ it teaches the kids that they are capable and in doing so keeps them optimistic and open to new things such as learning to read. Learned helplessness: you feel helpless due to struggles you weren’t able to overcome before. As a calf the elephant has a post attached to its foot that is dug deep into the ground, at first the elephant cries and struggles to escapes. Through exposure the elephant feels helpless to change its situation and remains complacent to the point that a small string attached to its foot is enough deterrent to stop it from running away. Optimal arousal level: inverted u graph­ must find the right level of arousal for the athlete. Some times pep talks and speeches can over arouse athletes hurting their performance. If you raise arousal you have to take into account the optimal level of arousal Ch.13­imagery Definition and basics of imagery­ any time you think of something that either hasn’t happened yet, any thought not happening at the moment ­Visualization, mental rehearsal, symbolic rehearsal, covert/mental practice Imagery is trying to create the situation in your mind before doing it. The more sense you involve the better. For athletes kinesthetic imagery is extremely important. Its understanding you body and its place in space. There is visual, kinesthetic, auditory, tactile, olfactory senses. It involves both moods and emotions. The goal is to form a simulation from past memories and shape them to new and meaningful images. Psychological intervention studies show that imagery enhances performance and confidence and coping, studies show that it helps in learning and performing motor skills. It depends on many factors. Athletes imagine surroundings, positive and negative character of images, the senses involved, the perspective Functions of imagery­ specific and general: motivational­use it to motivate or discourage you and cognitive­ creating strategy­ a game plan Imagery perspective­ how you are visualizing the situation­ no perspective is best to use in all situations. It is more important that the person chooses a comfortable style that allows for control and vividness. ­Internal perspective: your seeing it from your own point of view­ used in sports where it doesn’t matter if it looks good just that you do it. Football, soccer, basketball ­External perspective: your watching yourself doing it­ gymnastics and figure skating are both sports where it matters how it looks. So you have to visualize how and where you need to land so it looks good. Four theories of imagery 1. Phychoneuromuslcular theory: imagining an action can make you better at it because of muscle memory, as you think of the movement your muscles get ready to perform the movement. As a little kid learning to ride a bike if he slept and dreamt about riding the bike he would be better at it because the muscles were getting ready as well. Has downside to once learned its hard to undue, Charles Barkley had a great swing but then was taught to visualize stopping before hitting and now cant hit the ball without awkward movement first. “neurons that fire together wire together” 2.Symbolic Learning theory: when you imagine the event you get a better understanding about what you need to do. You learn step by step to do something. You wont be able to reattach the mirror in the right spot without first marking where it goes. It helps us understand movement patterns and helps us create blueprints to what we need to do 3. Bioinformational theory: you think of a stimulus and how you will respond to it. In a plane emergency everyone knows that if loss of pressure you will grab the oxygen mask, if you crash into the water you grab a life vest. When you think of an argument you don’t just think about what you are going to say, you think about how he will respond. In sports if he comes from here. I need to move here. It’s a stimulus and response scenarios 4. Psychological skills explanations: Going to a therapist for a couple hours a day/week people get better, but if you go to the library during that time you'll also get better. It gives you time to focus on yourself, concentrate/focus on what you need to do. It develops mental skills such as concentration and confidence thereby reducing anxiety. Attention–arousal set theory: Imagery functions as a preparatory set that assists in reaching optimal arousal. Psychological skills hypothesis: Imagery enhances feelings of confidence, reduces anxiety levels, and increases concentration. Motivational function: Imagery serves a motivational function. Uses: improve concentration and motivation, builds confidence, helps control emotions, learn and improve sport skills, teaches strategy to prepare for competition, coping skills, and as problem solving 2 keys to effective imagery ­Vividness: how real can you make it seem. Use as many senses as possible. Imagine being at home­ what does it look like, smell like, feel like… ­Controllability: being able to control your thoughts and therefore the imagery you will create. Creating just the images you want. Learning to control a performance against a tough opponent and emotions Exercise settings: helps develop exercise techniques; imagine how you want you body to look. Dieting­ you say 4 months from now ill weigh 20lbs less, or going to the gym have the idea in your head that I wont be in shape tomorrow but in 3 months I will. Provide self­efficacy­ confidence in oneself Self­confidence definition­ belief in yourself to perform a behavior/task Dispositional self­confidence­ it’s a trait­ you normally are self­confident. The degrees of certainty individuals usually have about their ability to succeed State self confidence­ the self­confidence individuals have in a specific situation Self­fulfilling prophecy­Pygmalion effect: expecting something to happen usually helps it cause it to happen. Negative self­fulfilling prophecy­ the expectation to fail leads it to happen. The idea that blonds are dumb­ a blond will think shes not as smart and will do worse on a test Roger bannister­ first person to beat the 4 minute mile­ before he did it no one believed that it could beat, but once he did it the record was beat 12x within the year. Once they knew it was possible they aspired to do it Egyptian hang gliders­ had the material for hundreds of years no one thought flight was possible Frankenstein­ invented horror genre, 2 medical devices­ organ transplant, and defibrillator to restart the heart. Star trek­ touchscreen and flat screens, video chat, telephones Semantic tree­ hear red you think of related things, you can read sentences as long as the first and last letter are the same. This is because we know what word should come next. Bobby McFerrin­ pentatonic scale Benefits of self­confidence­ arouses positive emotions, facilitates concentrations, affects the setting and pursuit of challenging goals, increases effort, changes game strategies­ play to win, affects performance and psychological momentum Optimal level of self­confidence­ it’s the inverted U graph. You need to find the right level of self­confidence. At this level you are so convinced that you will achieve your goal that you strive hard to do it. Lack of confidence creates anxiety, breaks concentration, and causes indecisiveness. Overconfidence (False confidence)­ makes you prepare less than you need to. You think you know the material for a test so you just skim over it thinking you know it all, when it comes to the test you’re screwed 4 stages of how expectations influence outcomes 1. Coaches form expectations: based on personal cues such as gender, build, ethnicity, and race and based on performance information­ practice behaviors. Problems occur when expectation are too high or low 2. Expectation influences their behavior regarding the­ frequency and quality of coach­athlete interactions. Quantity and quality of instruction, and type/frequency of feedback. The coach gives him more attention acting on his bias 3. Coaches behavior affect athletes performance by causing low­expectancy performers to perform more poorly because of less reinforcement, less playing time, less confidence, and attributions to low ability. By not spending as much time with other teammates the coach further proves how exceptional his choice was in comparison. 4. Athlete’s performance confirms coaches original expectations, performance then feeds back into stage 1 of the coaches expectations and athlete performance process. Given more opportunity to succeed he succeeds proving the coaches original belief. 4 stages 1. type of bias not based on reality 2. act on that bias 3. because of the bias it will change results­ consequence of the bias 4. doesn’t do as well­ confirming bias Pygmalion in the classroom­ experiment every kid they predicted to be smart turned out to be smart. To create a bias told teachers which students were going to be the smartest. This was done to see how the teacher responded. The teachers would give these students more attention, teach them better, and have more patience. stage 1­ teacher selects these kids based off “results” stage 2­ kids were given more attention and help stage 3­ kid proved to be smart given all the extra help in comparison stage 4­ I knew these kids were smart Stone soup­ there is this guy who is hungry and he's knocking on doors begging for food, and he's going to the next village when he finds a stone and goes and tries to sell it for 200$ for food and he tells them it is magical if you put it in the soup that it will make the best soup ever, the villagers said lets try it and as they put the stone in the soup he tells them to add ingredients which actually makes the soup taste good. By creating this idea of something being good it becomes good Bandura’s Self­efficacy­­ provides a model for how we generalize our feelings of accomplishment­ sources 1.Performance accomplishments: you’ve done it before, most dependable 2. Vicarious experiences: modeling­ seeing others do it influences self efficacy 3. Verbal Persuasion: given instructions can enhance feelings of self­efficacy 4.Imaginal Experiences: you can imagine how to do it there by raising confidence 5. Psychological states: when aversive physiological arousal, poor performance 6. Emotional States: the mood your in can effect it Self­efficacy is a determined by performance and exercise behavior feedback theory­ you learn only through rewards and punishments. Bandar says the reward and punishment in reality ,you can model behavior , you can see it happen to other people and say man i shouldn't do this, that’s why you may or may not do it. ex: when you see people fall on the last step of the stairs, when you get to that last step you will be careful so you don't fall. bobo doll experiment­ Step 1­ you take kids and out them in different rooms, one room they are watching cartoons and the next room watching people punching/ beating people up.

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Chapter 8, Problem 55E is Solved
Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

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According to Coulomb's Law, which pair of charged