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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro ISBN: 9780321809247 1

Solution for problem 113IE Chapter 8

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition | ISBN: 9780321809247 | Authors: Nivaldo J. Tro

Chemistry: A Molecular Approach | 3rd Edition

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Problem 113IE
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Hist1020 January 26, 2016 Neolithic Revolution: approx. 10,000 BCE - People stopped being nomadic - Built cities and towns - Changed the course of history Industrial Revolution - Fundamentally changes the way people live and experience the world around them - Changes the kinds of jobs that they do - Changes still happening in present day - Starts (arguably) in Manchester, England because:  Agricultural advancements  Population growth  Access to raw materials Feudal System- Open Field System - Common land - Sharecropping - Not a lot of land owned, rented or borrowed by large landholders - “Manors” - Problem with system: any given time, two of the fields are empty, only one growing per season; wasted land Agricultural Advancements (early 1700s) - Jethro Tull’s Seed Drill (1701): control where seeds went when planting; even rows; know how much planted; equal distribution; higher crop yield - Charles “Turnip” Townshend: new crop rotation; plant all of the fields; Norfolk System 1730s; quadrant system (quad. 1- wheat, quad 2- turnips, quad. 3- barley, quad. 4- clover) and rotate after harvest; creates a food surplus in England; increased crop yield; better planting methods; population increase Access to raw materials - Able to trade raw materials with United States - Start to produce things to trade so they can make money and get raw materials Enclosures - Building large fences around areas of harvest so that special products can be produced - Destruction of many homes - More homeless people  Move to city to look for work Yarn Production & Cottage Industry - Where the newly found homeless people find work - Spinning cotton in to thread and looming thread into cloth to get paid - Done in a house, not in a factory - Anyone in the house is doing the work Innovations in Cotton - Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves, 1764): faster - Water frame (Richard Arkwright, 1769): larger, stronger yarn - Spinning cotton into cloth about 15x faster; more efficient - Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney, 1793): put cotton in, turn wheel, drop seeds out Expansion of Slavery - England needed more cotton to keep up with increasing demand - England made every part of cloth production more efficient except the picking of the cotton, so more slaves brought in - Atlantic Slave Trade New Power Sources - Thomas Newcomen’s Steam Engine: - James Watt’s Steam Engine: more efficient than Newcomen’s - British Coal From Cottage to Factory - Can no longer produce cloth in your home, because machinery has gotten too big The Factory System - Entrepreneurs decided to combine all of the factors of production into one place - “… to make machines of men” Prince Albert and Queen Victoria The Great Exposition 1851 Sir Joseph Paxton (1801- 1865) - Submitted idea to King about grand building for the Great Exposition and won - Made of iron and glass Assembly of Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London - 9 Months - Largest single sheets of glass produced to date - “A Temple Made of Glass” st - Great Exposition held here on May 1 , 1851  500,000 participants in opening ceremony “Great Exposition of the Works of Industry of all Nations” (not all nations got to be there in the same way) - 15,000 exhibits - 10,000 objects - British Textile Exhibit - Foreign Exhibits (exhibit space relative to wealth and power) - Projecting a National Image: France (2 ndbiggest space); world’s largest mirror - Projecting a National Image: India; handmade, non-industrial objects - Projecting a National Image: United States; nationalist statements (giant eagle statue; other industrial things) - Machinery Room - Lane’s Telescopic Viewfinders  Basically a cut out thingy thing that gives you a cut-out picture of the crystal palace/ great exposition Displays and Disparities: - Industrialized Nations vs. Primary Producers Moving around all the new stuf - Waterways - Horseless carriage  A carriage with a steam engine on the back  Great for carrying people and not stuf - Rainhill Trials The Contest - Racing horseless carriages for money - Rules: 1.Locomotive required to haul a load, three times its own weight, for a distance of 70 miles at no less than 10 mph 2.Locomotive shouldn’t weigh more than four tons (if carried on four wheels) or six tons (if carried on six) 3.Locomotive shouldn’t cost more than 550 pounds to build The Entrants - Novelty (“Steampunk”)- favorite - Perseverance - Rocket- not fan favorite - Sans Pareil- looks like Rocket but larger - Cyclopedia- not steam powered engine, horse- powered engine  Horse walking on a treadmill to make engine work The Race Begins (October 1829) - Cyclopedia didn’t cooperate with machine and also fell through platform, so out before race starts - Second out- Perseverance- fell of carriage on way to trial and cracked - Third place- Sans Pareil- lucky to have competed because weighed more than it should have; iron used to build isn’t set well and it cracks - Novelty vs. Rocket: Novelty made it halfway before unable to finish competing - Winner: Stephenson’s Rocket; gets 500 pounds and gets contract to build new trains for Manchester- Liverpool railroad The “Crowning” Invention: The Railroad - So far, the biggest change that happens because of Industrial Revolution Opening Day (September 15, 1830) William Huskisson - Falls of train - YAY no not yay Connecting East to West: - Not just connecting east to west England - Starting to be built all over Europe - The Orient Express - Paris to Istanbul - Trans- Siberian Railway Railroads annihilated space - 118 Miles: took about 20 hours on a good day BEFORE - 118 Miles: took about 3 hours AFTER What was it like to ride the railway - People upset because carriages or walking made it easier to see things and experience one’s surroundings - Trains made everything a blur - Boredom and Impatience - “About the destination, not the trip” - Epic train crashes Before the Railroads….. - Towns set their own time based on sunrise - Example: Bristol was ten minutes behind London because the sun rose later in Bristol Railroads begin to make London time standard Why “railway time” - Stop confusion about arrival and departure time - Reduce accidents Two Times: Local and Railway - Clocks have two hands with both times so that places don’t have to change their local time Statutes Act (1880)- Definition of Time - A law that set London time as the standard time - Greenwich Mean Time How do you communicate the correct time - Telegraph used to help relegate railway time - Morse code Telegraph further crushed space - By 1890s communication was possible all around the world - Smaller and much more accessible Standardized Time and Factory Time - New Mantra of Efficiency - Time = $$$$ or Pounds Adam Smith - Wealth of Nations 1776 - Specialized Labor The Factory Life - Shift work rather than seasonal - Sundays of - New division between work and leisure To blow of steam…. - Football (soccer) What does football (soccer) have to do with the Industrial Revolution - Early football (mob ball/ soccer) played in villages for fun; played on Shrove (Fat) Tuesday; no number of people on team, just divided in half; kick the ball around - Early footballs: pigs bladders wrapped and sewed together; not completely round - Goodyear finds out how to make rubber in such a way that they can make a round ball instead of pigsbladder ball (vulcan ice rubber) - Sheffield FC (1857) - Thames Ironworks (now West Ham United) Exporting Sport - Football travelled the British Empire - Railroads carried teams to far away opponents - Orange Free State Bantu FC (1898) Railroads - Made the world smaller - Increased Industrial Trade - Changed the way people experienced time and space - Opened the world to exchange of cultures  Things such as sports - Time becomes a thing that runs one’s life - Living by the clock

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Chapter 8, Problem 113IE is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Edition: 3
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321809247

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