The article Flexure of Concrete Beams Reinforcedwith Advanced Composite Orthogrids (J. of AerospaceEngr., 1997: 715) gave the accompanying data on ultimateload (kN) for two different types of beams.Sample Sample SampleType Size Mean SDFiberglass grid 26 33.4 2.2Commercial 26 42.8 4.3carbon grida. Assuming that the underlying distributions are normal,calculate and interpret a 99% CI for the differencebetween true average load for the fiberglassbeams and that for the carbon beams.b. Does the upper limit of the interval you calculated inpart (a) give a 99% upper confidence bound for thedifference between the two ms? If not, calculatesuch a bound. Does it strongly suggest that true averageload for the carbon beams is more than that forthe fiberglass beams? Explain.
Week 12 Notes AHS 102 Expressionism 1900s-1910s (early 20 century)h Two Styles: - The Fauves (French): Hate city life - German Expressionism Fauvism - Technically only lasted 1905-19911 - Wild use of color (from imagination) - Artists called “Wild Beasts,” reflected their style Work to Know: The Dinner Table by Henri Matisse - Looks like a conventional artwork (composition) - Looks impressionistic - Early work Work to Know: Harmony in Red by Henri Matisse - Later work - Abstract, same subject - Flatness, can’t tell what the fruit is, table looks the same as the wall - Maid is simplified - Is it a painting or a window Work to Know: The Joy of Life Henri Matisse - Anti-industrialist - Western art and civilized art = boring; search for new source material Work to Know: Blue Nude Henri Matisse - Unusual, whole body looks odd/distorted - Matisse sort of doing what Manet was doing with Olympia in experimenting with the representation of the female figure - Seems animalistic, frightening, and grotesque (like an animal in the jungle) - Face = influenced by African mask Work to Know: Blue Nude Cutout Henri Matisse - Cutouts are abstract shapes from colored paper - Increase in abstraction Work to Know: Prostitute Before a Mirror by Georges Rouault - Uses conventions of a female nude (mirror to show more angles) - Is intentionally very ugly - Garish makeup - Gray and blue color - Challenging conventions of how women are portrayed in art Work to Know: Head of Christ by Georges Rouault - Different way of portraying religious subject - Grays and blues = sad - Christ weeping for the world German Expressionism Work to Know: Street, Dresden by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner - Woman = interlocutor - Bright, garish colors. Clashing and jarring on purpose - Off putting - People represented strangely - Staring at viewer - On train track, back to oncoming train (represents the city as threatening to personal safety) - Claustrophobia and isolation (crowds of people and sudden empty space; a person feels surrounded yet lonely at the same time in a city) Work to Know: Saint Mary of Egypt Among Sinners by Emil Nolde - Sailors, raucous scene - St Mary of Egypt = prostitute reformed (similar to Mary Magdalene) - She’s in the middle of prostitution, enjoying it - Problematic depiction of religious figure Work to Know: Fate of the Animals by Franz Marc - Mankind encroaching on animal territory - Very geometric - Trees being cut down, animals losing home Vocab - Subjective color - A color changes in your head dependent on how your eyes and brain perceive it. A subjective color is the color it looks because of the way you see it. th Cubism 1910s -1920s (early 20 century) Pablo Picasso – chose abstraction as a mode of expression Work to Know: Les Demoiselles D’Avigmon by Pablo Picasso - Early Cubism, everything geometric - Picasso inspired by Vesanne - Reduction in color palette - Prostitutes – viewer is client - Faces look bored and monstrous - Initially there were two males included client sitting at table - Medical student – checks women for venereal disease - Problematic depictions of gender and race - Faces look like African masks – Europe viewed Africa as threatening Georges Braque - Enjoyed music – references in his work Work to Know: Houses at L’Estaque (pre-cubist) by Georges Braque - Things getting more geometric - Cezanne influences subjective color 1908 Beginnings of Cubism - Very formalized movements 3 phases of Cubism - Analytic Cubism - Orphism = transitional - Synthetic cubism Work to Know: The Portuguese (analytic cubism) by Georges Braque - Portuguese man has just disembarked from ship and carrying guitar - Hard to make out subject, very abstract Characteristics of Analytic Cubism 1. monochromatic – didn’t care about color (trying to figure out space) 2. transparent, overlapping planes 3. compression of time and space 4. push/pull of spatial planes 5. breaking down of space 6. opaque planes – you can’t see through 7. transparent planes – glass – Cubist style 8. seeing from different angles 9. You can see background and foreground all at once 10. Fascination in concepts 3 and 5 inspired by Einstein Orphism - Analytic cubism with color added back in Work to Know: Robert Delauney, The Red Tower - Orphism - Tower is ideal of new industrialized world – used so artists could say they were modern - Background breaches foreground - Analytic Cubism + Color = Orphism - Transparent overlapping planes Synthetic Cubism Work to Know: Three Musicians by Picasso - Theme of music - Guy wearing harlequin = Spanish jester, Picasso felt he could relate - Monk is one of his friends Characteristics of Synthetic Cubism 1. uses color (really bright) 2. opaque planes 3. Builds up space (everything more solid) 4. Less of an exercise than analytic cubism – still fractured and geometric Picasso’s later works Work to Know: Olga seated in an Armchair by Picasso - Realistic, similar to Neoclassical and classical style - Large Nude in Red Chair - Pornographic, scary teeth - Chooses abstraction Work to Know: Weeping Woman by Picasso - Dora Maar = always crying - Hysterical crazy woman - Tissue = monochromatic and see through (analytic style) - The rest is synthetic style - Borrowing from art history and Spanish heritage Mater Dolorosa (weeping Virgin) have glass tears on surface Style looks like fractured glass Futurism 1909 - 1918 1910 (early 20th century) Characteristics - Mainly in Italy - War equals cleansing force - Response to call for war - Ended at the end of World War I (1918) Work to Know: Giacomo Balla, Speed of a Motorcar - Based off of analytic cubism (compressed time and space) - Repeated motor car looks like it’s in motion - Filippo Marinetti: “A speeding automobile is more beautiful than the Nike of Samothrace” Albert Einstein - deconstruction of time and motion due to the theory of relativity influenced futurism Work to Know: Dynamism of an Automobile by Luigi Russolo (not on study guide) - Bending space and time arrows represent fast paced future - Used in comparison to Giacomo Balla’s speeding motorcar Work to Know: Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash by Giacomo Balla - Many legged Dachshund and human - Rushing forward Work to Know: Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin by Gino Severini - Analytic cubism influence (overlapping transparent planes) - Sequins on the dancers dress makes it seem moving because of light - Self portrait in the bottom right - Women on scissors example of burlesque dancers routines Work to Know: Armored Train by Gino severini - Bright colors seen as optimistic - Active War we wish to glorify War the sole hygiene to the world World War I - World introduced to new horrors - Mustard gas, bombs, tanks, barbed wire, trench warfare - People maimed, others horrified Dada 1910 to 1920s (early 20th century) Characteristics: - Hated War - Logic, order, and reason are bad (associated with military) - Unreasonable and crazy art absurd - Counter the horrors of the war - Questioned everything, including art What is art - Primary concern - Can be ugly or just colors (Ex: Black Square and St. Mary of Egypt among Sinners) Who makes art - Who is the artist - Why no women artists - Do you have to be a human to make art (elephant painting) Where does the artistic process happen - Is taking a shovel and recontextualizing it in an exhibit art The name “Dada” - Came up with it by opening dictionary and pointing m - Means “rocking horse” - Childhood and toys referenced and Dada art - Too Perfect Taken with a grain of salt like Giorgio Vasari’s stories Dad and Iconoclasm - Destroying images - Disdain for conventions, “Dada spits on everything” Performance art grows Work to Know: Karawane by Hugo Ball - At Cabaret Voltaire - Ridiculous, said nonsense words focused on sound (sound poetry)