The fuel value of hamburger is approximately 3.6 kcal/g. If a man cats 1 pound of hamburger for lunch and if none of the energy is stored in his body, estimate the amount of water that would have to be lost in perspiration to keep his body temperature constant. The heat of vaporization of water may be taken as 2.41 kJ/g (I lb = 453.6 g).
Motor control Action is linking together different movements in sequence (cerebellum) ● Movements - simple reflexes with brief muscle activation (eyeblink, hiccup, finger twitch) ● Acts/Action patterns - complex, sequential movements (honking your car horn, writing your name, playing lead guitar) ● A motor plan - set of muscle commands established before the action occurs ● Most of the brain’s activity is ultimately motoric; preparing to move, moving, correcting movement ● The only reason we need a brain at all is to move. So the whole point of our brain is to guide movement. The rest is just fluff. Two control mechanisms ● Open loop control - Movements to maximize speed ○ Ballistic movement (sneeze) - fast and are completed no matter what sensory feedback is received ○ No guiding external feedback ● Closed-loop control- Movements to maximize accuracy - info from what is being controlled flows back to the controlling device ○ Ramp movement are slower and smooth, sustained motions guided by feedback Hierarchy of motor control systems ● Skeletal systems and muscles power movement ● Spinal cord controls skeletal muscles ● Brainstem - integrated motor action ● Primary motor cortex - help plan and decide on a movement ● Nonprimary motor cortex - put things in the right order/sequence ● Cerebellum and basal ganglia - don’t have access to muscles so they indirectly tweak through