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At a certain temperature the speeds of six gaseous

Chemistry: Atoms First | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780073511160 | Authors: Julia Burdge, Jason Overby ISBN: 9780073511160 60

Solution for problem 11QP Chapter 11

Chemistry: Atoms First | 1st Edition

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Chemistry: Atoms First | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780073511160 | Authors: Julia Burdge, Jason Overby

Chemistry: Atoms First | 1st Edition

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Problem 11QP

At a certain temperature the speeds of six gaseous molecules in a container are 2.0, 2.2, 2.6, 2.7, 3.3, and 3.5 m/s. Calculate the root-mean-square speed and the average speed of the molecules. These two average values are close to each other, but the root-mean-square value is always the larger of the two. Why?

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Euro Notes – French Revolution and Napoleon French Revolution Beginning – 1789  Storm of the Bastille: 954 members of 3 estate gather weapons o Lafayette steps in as head of Parisian National Guard o Formally the start of aggression  Rumor was that Louis was hiding brigands – as a result, factories and businesses closed  People were frightened, especially nobility, and began leaving – émigrés o Important émigrés: Duke of Provence, Duke of Artois August 4 Decrees – 19 in total  Nobles who attended midnight readings gave up many freedoms o Did this to sit in National Assembly (revolutionary congress)  What did the Decrees do o Abolished tithes, abolished serfdom, reformed tax laws, abolished hunting rights for nobles, abolished tax exemptions, made 3 estate eligible for officer military service Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen  Liberty, property, security, and freedom of resistance to oppression; didn’t finish until 1791 o Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, and Jefferson­based ideals October Days  Flanders Regiment o Bourbon white o Red and blue revolutionaries  A group of revolutionary people march 15 miles to Versailles to check in on national assembly – weren’t wanted, so they yelled at the palace – Louis comes out on balcony and people cheered him o People were allowed to stay in the courtyard – at 11:00, people decide to attack Swiss guard, and raid palace, destroying Queen’s room – Louis met with them and said he would return to Paris o Oct 6, 1789, Louis returns; since then, no monarch has ever lived in Versailles, instead lived in Tuileries Palace o Moves the revolution to Paris – easier for revolutionaries Constitution of 1791  Create single­house legislature called Legislative Assembly  Established voting rules: 25 years old, male, citizens (passive vs. active)  1 elector (50k) for every 100 people – had veto but proposal would automatically become law 5 years later Constitution of the Clergy  All clergy is elected by the electors  No more archbishops (only 83 bishops)  Clergy become government officials  You could take an oath to the revolution and keep your job, or face election o Only 7 took it  Angered common people because they felt like they were losing a family member (Catholicism was very big) June 20, 1791 “Flight to Varennes”  Plan for Royal Family to flee o Lady in waiting would be Russian noblewoman with 2 kids (royal kids), Louis and Marie would be servants – wanted to go to Austrian Netherlands, did everything right, but gets caught by peasant – “I am Louis Capet” o National Assembly is doomed from the start because men don’t have government experience (740) Declaration of Pillnitz  Marie Antoinette is frantic to her family in Austria, bothers Leopold II  Leopold meets King of Prussia (Frederick William II) at Pillnitz – he will help only if every other European power joins in, but Catherine the Great and England don’t (American Revolution) o Lame excuse for Leopold not to help his sister National Assembly  High unemployment, poverty; there are issues to fix  Right monarchists (265); Center moderates (345); Left radical (130)  Girondins – wanted to bring revolution to Europe (like Bolsheviks), are represented by small farmers o Led by Brissot, Roland, and Condorcet  Jacobins broke from Girondins, represented the cities – eventually became more revolutionary than Girondins  April 20, 1792 – Assembly declares war on Austria and Prussia will join against France – overreaction and doomed war from the start o First of Robespierre’s mistakes  Brunswick Manifesto – Duke says he will invade France, but if any harm comes to the monarchy, he will destroy Paris How do others feel  Thomas Paine (Common Sense) wrote Rights of Man ­ supported French  Edmund Burke also was revolutionary – supported Frence Jacobins  Jacobin Leaders: o Maximilien Robespierre (1758­1794) o Jean­Paul Marat (1742­1793) o Georges Danton (1754­1794)  Used mobs and crowds to frighten people; ruthless and modern in coming to power  Robespierre uses democracy as example for revolution, but in reality he will create a dictatorship  Jacobins capture king, imprison the royals September Massacres  September 5 and 6, mobs bombarded the prisons and killed people  Refractory priests and nuns were in prison for not taking the oath, were martyred (1200­1400 were killed)  Drumhead trials: a trial that is done by a mob; no due process  People were murdered and disemboweled, etc.  Valmy – beginning of Republic (Napoleon will seal it) o Win battles, push into empire o All men can vote under the French Republic National Convention  No Monarchists were allowed  Conservatives: Girondins (didn’t like the spiraling of the revolution): 165 o Brissot, Roland, Condorcet still in power  Left: Jacobins: radical (150)  Moderates (435)  What do they have to worry about o Must write a constitution that they will never use  Who will rule o National Convention represents the people  Executive o No  What next o Put the king on trial May 31, 1793 – the Reign of Terror begins  Committee of Public Safety: Determines people who are a threat to the revolution  Tribunals: Brought people against the revolution, dealt with trials, possibly freed or executed (most likely executed), no due process  Marie Antoinette is tried: Travesty of justice  40,000 people executed, starting with Louis – Robespierre headed executions, ended July 1794  Who was executed o Only 8% of 40,000 were nobles – a lot got out in time o 6% clergy executed – 2,000 priests drowned, chained to logs in one day (Nantes) o 70% were laborers and peasants – although they were lower class, they wanted normalcy of monarchy o 14% bourgeoisie Economic Problems of the Terror  The new government cares about cementing the revolution’s legacy, not cementing the future  Workers are called sans­culottes – start to hate the revolution  Enrages (common women, fought for women’s rights and against the economy)  Maximum ceilings – debt increased in 1794  Friend of the People – Marat’s newspaper, horribly misinformed  Hebertists: Radical revolutionary group, all were guillotined Robespierre’s Policy  De­Catholicism: Abolished open Christian worship  Man’s ability to reason: Cult of Reason – advocated a new society  New Calendar: year begins on Sept. 20 to honor victory at Valmy (begins in 1792), months based on weather and were 30 year months – afterward, 5 day festival  Calendar only lasted until 1801: Pope was angry, so Napoleon brought back Christian calendar  Prohibits women’s organizations, guillotined women in autumn 1793  In April 1794, he accuses Danton of treason – very, very bad mistake as he was executed – Danton said “you will be next”  Thermidorian Reaction: People were no longer excited about the government – shots ring out against Robespierre, Committee of Public Safety – Couthon toppled over, Robespierre was hit  Executed the next day Next Government – The Directory  The Constitution of 1795  Lower: Council of 500  Upper House: Over 40, 200 people, Council of Ancients  All these people still have blood on their hands – killed king and queen  If you had Royalists elected, bad things would happen – 2/3 of men elected had to come from convention  People said it was better to have a king – Constitution of Verona  Continuity of Louis XVIII – was an émigré, Count of Provence – threatens from the Italian States  People were more radical – Company of Equals (early communists) Company of Equals  Gracchus Babeuf Coup d’etat of Fructidor  Sept 4, 1797  Directors ask a general for help – Napoleon comes in Napoleon Who is Napoleon  French/Italian nobleman from Corsica  Goes to Military Academy – speaks French with an Italian accent  Military genius – suffered from Epilepsy, cheated at cards, etc.  Had brothers on his side (Joseph, Lucien, Jerome)  Annexes Savoy, incorporates Austrian Netherlands and Rhineland into France  Siblings: Joseph (‘68), Lucien (‘75), Louis (‘78) Jerome (‘84); 4 sisters  Unleashes Nationalism, which tortured Europe for 200 years  After going to Egypt, comes back in 1799 to plan takeover  Coup d’etat of Brumaire – epileptic fit – Lucien finishes speech, Napoleon finishes coup Overview of France  Napoleon sets up colony – Cisalpine Republic (Batavia)  Suspended gold payments  Second Coalition: Russia, Austria, Egypt against France  Consulate: 1799­1804 – Wanted to remind people of Rome  Fuchet – secret French police  Hired people with talent who cared about France  Religious toleration in France: all religions, even atheism  Bank of France controlled money and taxes fairly through income  Napoleonic Code: Keeps great things from the revolution, but gets rid of the idiocy Military Career of Napoleon  First Coalition 1792­1795 o Austria and Prussia; soon to be joined by Spain, Dutch, Sardinia and England o War of the First Coalition: Napoleon was a general and defeated the Austrians at Valmy  Second Coalition 1799: Egypt o Austrians failed to overthrow regime; all French territorial gains since 1793 confirmed o Battle of the Nile o Luneville (similar to Campo Formio) 1801: Signed between Napoleon and Francis II  Marked the end of the Second Coalition after Austria was defeated at Battle of Marengo and Battle of Hohenlinden  Left England as the only country at war with France o Amiens 1802: Treaty between England and France; brought an end to Anglo­French war, only point of peace between 1793­1814  Meanwhile he has revolution in Haiti  Peace 1802­1803: Brought on by Treaty of Amiens o British nobles flocked to Paris, went to Louvre, immersed in French Culture  In 1804, Francis II becomes Emperor of Austria  George III becomes senile – William Pitt is prime minister, George IV becomes regent  Alexander I (son of murdered Paul I): very conflicted; enlightenment ideals but he knows they don’t work in Russia o Believed if monarchs developed an idea of promoting peace, there wouldn’t be war: precursor to NATO, etc.  Reorganization of Italy, Switzerland and Germany o Makes brother Jerome King of Westphalia o Under treaty of Campo Formio (Napoleon forced on them)  Conditions: recognizes that the French has Northern Italy and left bank of Rhine  Islands off of Greece that belonged to Austria (Ionian Islands) – went to France  French Republics were created in Southern Italy  Third Coalition 1805­1807 o Alexander I of Russia o Ulm 1805 o Trafalgar 1805: British fought (Lord Admiral Nelson dies) only battle Napoleon loses in 3 Coalition o Austerlitz 1805­1806: Resounding French victory; forced Francis II to dissolve HRE o Confederation of the Rhine: Napoleon creates Confederation out of all former HRE states (16 states, not including Austria) o Jena­Auerstadt 1806: Prussia gets crushed by French cavalry (king flees into Russia and asks Alexander for protection)  Opened Russia up to Napoleon o Friedland 1807: June 4: Russians are defeated; Alexander starts negotiations, Napoleon believes he has charmed him, but Alexander has a last laugh  Russian promise of alliance against England: didn’t want Russia to send wheat to England (Continental System)  Continental System will destroy Napoleon: so hell­bent on not trading with England that his people start to hate him  Treaty of Tilsit 1807 o Forced Russia not to trade with England  Continental System: Berlin Decree 1806 – No British trade o Backfired because French were upset because they didn’t get British wool o Didn’t affect Britain – found other markets in recently freed Spanish Colonies in South America  Peninsular War in Spain o French and Spanish armies occupy Portugal; all is well until France turns on Spain  Portuguese royal family forced to flee to Brazil o Spain notable because of its use of guerrilla warfare, although was very underprepared in beginning  Charles IV of Spain forced to abdicate, and son Ferdinand VII takes throne; later, Napoleon puts brother Joseph on the throne o Duke of Wellington played a major role with intervention of British o Ended formally in 1814  Austrian War of Liberation 1809 o Wittgenstein tries to undo Napoleon’s capture of Liepzig, but napoleon forces Prussia into a trap at Battle of Lutzen o Battle of Bautzen: Russia and Prussia surprise French troops o Armistice of Poischwitz 1813 o First major sense of Austrian Nationalism since Napoleon took over parts of it  Napoleon’s Marriage to Marie Louise of Austria o In order to cement France’s recent (1810) alliance with Austria, Napoleon marries 18­year old Marie Louise  Son, Napoleon II, born in 1811  Grand Empire: French Empire, dependent states, allied states o French Empire: Direct control by Napoleon o Dependent States  States ruled by Napoleon’s relatives  Spain, Netherlands, Italy, Swiss Republic, Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of the Rhine, Westphalia o Allied States  Defeated by Napoleon, but got to keep their monarch  Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria  Napoleonic Reforms within conquered lands o Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Kant, Hegel, and Beethoven were major thinkers in Germany  Nationalism and Romanticism were fostered with Napoleon  Resistance in Europe to Napoleon o Resentment in states because of Continental System; people didn’t like not being able to trade with England o German Nationalism was brewing, spurred on by Prussia o Romantic movement o Nationalism was often conservative  Reforms in Prussia: Baron Stein o Came as a reaction to the defeat by Napoleon at Jena­Auerstadt o Initiated by Baron Heinrich Stein, they used Enlightenment ideas  Abolish serfdom, no monopoly of guilds (increase competition in economy), changed agricultural trade organizations, no more cabinets, etc  French Invasion of Russia 1812 o France wanted to destroy Russian army and kill Alexander for not complying with no­trade agreement (England) o Got support of Poland and began to invade Russia  Eventually, Russia knew it was losing, so it started slashing and burning  This left Napoleon without resources – most of his army died, Russia wound up winning  Battle of Nations (Liepzig) 1813 o Russia, Austria, Prussia, Sweden against France  Napoleon is weakened and loses support to war­weariness  Austrians capture Dolitz, French recapture Wachau  On October 17, Jean Bernadotte (Swedish Crown Prince) defected to Confederation, betraying Napoleon, who eventually loses war o Dissolution of Confederation of the Rhine, Napoleon loses control of land east of the Rhine  Metternich o Austrian diplomat and organizer of Congress of Vienna o The Congress  Strong border states to prevent strong France  Creating Netherlands (Holland + surrounding areas) and Italian State of Piedmont  Prussia gets left bank of the Rhine  Austria takes Tuscany and Milan  Murat, despite being Napoleon’s right hand man, keeps throne of Naples  Bourbons restored in Spain  No unified Germany (yet)  Treaty of Chaumont 1814: Quadruple alliance o Signed between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and England o Cease fire that returned France to pre­revolution borders o Set balance of power for decades  Restoration of the Bourbons (Louis XVIII) o Duke of Artois returns after death of Napoleon to  First Treaty of Paris o Returns France to its 1792 borders o Napoleon is exiled to Elba (Italy)

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Textbook: Chemistry: Atoms First
Edition: 1
Author: Julia Burdge, Jason Overby
ISBN: 9780073511160

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At a certain temperature the speeds of six gaseous