At a certain temperature the speeds of six gaseous molecules in a container are 2.0, 2.2, 2.6, 2.7, 3.3, and 3.5 m/s. Calculate the root-mean-square speed and the average speed of the molecules. These two average values are close to each other, but the root-mean-square value is always the larger of the two. Why?
Euro Notes – French Revolution and Napoleon French Revolution Beginning – 1789 Storm of the Bastille: 954 members of 3 estate gather weapons o Lafayette steps in as head of Parisian National Guard o Formally the start of aggression Rumor was that Louis was hiding brigands – as a result, factories and businesses closed People were frightened, especially nobility, and began leaving – émigrés o Important émigrés: Duke of Provence, Duke of Artois August 4 Decrees – 19 in total Nobles who attended midnight readings gave up many freedoms o Did this to sit in National Assembly (revolutionary congress) What did the Decrees do o Abolished tithes, abolished serfdom, reformed tax laws, abolished hunting rights for nobles, abolished tax exemptions, made 3 estate eligible for officer military service Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Liberty, property, security, and freedom of resistance to oppression; didn’t finish until 1791 o Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, and Jeffersonbased ideals October Days Flanders Regiment o Bourbon white o Red and blue revolutionaries A group of revolutionary people march 15 miles to Versailles to check in on national assembly – weren’t wanted, so they yelled at the palace – Louis comes out on balcony and people cheered him o People were allowed to stay in the courtyard – at 11:00, people decide to attack Swiss guard, and raid palace, destroying Queen’s room – Louis met with them and said he would return to Paris o Oct 6, 1789, Louis returns; since then, no monarch has ever lived in Versailles, instead lived in Tuileries Palace o Moves the revolution to Paris – easier for revolutionaries Constitution of 1791 Create singlehouse legislature called Legislative Assembly Established voting rules: 25 years old, male, citizens (passive vs. active) 1 elector (50k) for every 100 people – had veto but proposal would automatically become law 5 years later Constitution of the Clergy All clergy is elected by the electors No more archbishops (only 83 bishops) Clergy become government officials You could take an oath to the revolution and keep your job, or face election o Only 7 took it Angered common people because they felt like they were losing a family member (Catholicism was very big) June 20, 1791 “Flight to Varennes” Plan for Royal Family to flee o Lady in waiting would be Russian noblewoman with 2 kids (royal kids), Louis and Marie would be servants – wanted to go to Austrian Netherlands, did everything right, but gets caught by peasant – “I am Louis Capet” o National Assembly is doomed from the start because men don’t have government experience (740) Declaration of Pillnitz Marie Antoinette is frantic to her family in Austria, bothers Leopold II Leopold meets King of Prussia (Frederick William II) at Pillnitz – he will help only if every other European power joins in, but Catherine the Great and England don’t (American Revolution) o Lame excuse for Leopold not to help his sister National Assembly High unemployment, poverty; there are issues to fix Right monarchists (265); Center moderates (345); Left radical (130) Girondins – wanted to bring revolution to Europe (like Bolsheviks), are represented by small farmers o Led by Brissot, Roland, and Condorcet Jacobins broke from Girondins, represented the cities – eventually became more revolutionary than Girondins April 20, 1792 – Assembly declares war on Austria and Prussia will join against France – overreaction and doomed war from the start o First of Robespierre’s mistakes Brunswick Manifesto – Duke says he will invade France, but if any harm comes to the monarchy, he will destroy Paris How do others feel Thomas Paine (Common Sense) wrote Rights of Man supported French Edmund Burke also was revolutionary – supported Frence Jacobins Jacobin Leaders: o Maximilien Robespierre (17581794) o JeanPaul Marat (17421793) o Georges Danton (17541794) Used mobs and crowds to frighten people; ruthless and modern in coming to power Robespierre uses democracy as example for revolution, but in reality he will create a dictatorship Jacobins capture king, imprison the royals September Massacres September 5 and 6, mobs bombarded the prisons and killed people Refractory priests and nuns were in prison for not taking the oath, were martyred (12001400 were killed) Drumhead trials: a trial that is done by a mob; no due process People were murdered and disemboweled, etc. Valmy – beginning of Republic (Napoleon will seal it) o Win battles, push into empire o All men can vote under the French Republic National Convention No Monarchists were allowed Conservatives: Girondins (didn’t like the spiraling of the revolution): 165 o Brissot, Roland, Condorcet still in power Left: Jacobins: radical (150) Moderates (435) What do they have to worry about o Must write a constitution that they will never use Who will rule o National Convention represents the people Executive o No What next o Put the king on trial May 31, 1793 – the Reign of Terror begins Committee of Public Safety: Determines people who are a threat to the revolution Tribunals: Brought people against the revolution, dealt with trials, possibly freed or executed (most likely executed), no due process Marie Antoinette is tried: Travesty of justice 40,000 people executed, starting with Louis – Robespierre headed executions, ended July 1794 Who was executed o Only 8% of 40,000 were nobles – a lot got out in time o 6% clergy executed – 2,000 priests drowned, chained to logs in one day (Nantes) o 70% were laborers and peasants – although they were lower class, they wanted normalcy of monarchy o 14% bourgeoisie Economic Problems of the Terror The new government cares about cementing the revolution’s legacy, not cementing the future Workers are called sansculottes – start to hate the revolution Enrages (common women, fought for women’s rights and against the economy) Maximum ceilings – debt increased in 1794 Friend of the People – Marat’s newspaper, horribly misinformed Hebertists: Radical revolutionary group, all were guillotined Robespierre’s Policy DeCatholicism: Abolished open Christian worship Man’s ability to reason: Cult of Reason – advocated a new society New Calendar: year begins on Sept. 20 to honor victory at Valmy (begins in 1792), months based on weather and were 30 year months – afterward, 5 day festival Calendar only lasted until 1801: Pope was angry, so Napoleon brought back Christian calendar Prohibits women’s organizations, guillotined women in autumn 1793 In April 1794, he accuses Danton of treason – very, very bad mistake as he was executed – Danton said “you will be next” Thermidorian Reaction: People were no longer excited about the government – shots ring out against Robespierre, Committee of Public Safety – Couthon toppled over, Robespierre was hit Executed the next day Next Government – The Directory The Constitution of 1795 Lower: Council of 500 Upper House: Over 40, 200 people, Council of Ancients All these people still have blood on their hands – killed king and queen If you had Royalists elected, bad things would happen – 2/3 of men elected had to come from convention People said it was better to have a king – Constitution of Verona Continuity of Louis XVIII – was an émigré, Count of Provence – threatens from the Italian States People were more radical – Company of Equals (early communists) Company of Equals Gracchus Babeuf Coup d’etat of Fructidor Sept 4, 1797 Directors ask a general for help – Napoleon comes in Napoleon Who is Napoleon French/Italian nobleman from Corsica Goes to Military Academy – speaks French with an Italian accent Military genius – suffered from Epilepsy, cheated at cards, etc. Had brothers on his side (Joseph, Lucien, Jerome) Annexes Savoy, incorporates Austrian Netherlands and Rhineland into France Siblings: Joseph (‘68), Lucien (‘75), Louis (‘78) Jerome (‘84); 4 sisters Unleashes Nationalism, which tortured Europe for 200 years After going to Egypt, comes back in 1799 to plan takeover Coup d’etat of Brumaire – epileptic fit – Lucien finishes speech, Napoleon finishes coup Overview of France Napoleon sets up colony – Cisalpine Republic (Batavia) Suspended gold payments Second Coalition: Russia, Austria, Egypt against France Consulate: 17991804 – Wanted to remind people of Rome Fuchet – secret French police Hired people with talent who cared about France Religious toleration in France: all religions, even atheism Bank of France controlled money and taxes fairly through income Napoleonic Code: Keeps great things from the revolution, but gets rid of the idiocy Military Career of Napoleon First Coalition 17921795 o Austria and Prussia; soon to be joined by Spain, Dutch, Sardinia and England o War of the First Coalition: Napoleon was a general and defeated the Austrians at Valmy Second Coalition 1799: Egypt o Austrians failed to overthrow regime; all French territorial gains since 1793 confirmed o Battle of the Nile o Luneville (similar to Campo Formio) 1801: Signed between Napoleon and Francis II Marked the end of the Second Coalition after Austria was defeated at Battle of Marengo and Battle of Hohenlinden Left England as the only country at war with France o Amiens 1802: Treaty between England and France; brought an end to AngloFrench war, only point of peace between 17931814 Meanwhile he has revolution in Haiti Peace 18021803: Brought on by Treaty of Amiens o British nobles flocked to Paris, went to Louvre, immersed in French Culture In 1804, Francis II becomes Emperor of Austria George III becomes senile – William Pitt is prime minister, George IV becomes regent Alexander I (son of murdered Paul I): very conflicted; enlightenment ideals but he knows they don’t work in Russia o Believed if monarchs developed an idea of promoting peace, there wouldn’t be war: precursor to NATO, etc. Reorganization of Italy, Switzerland and Germany o Makes brother Jerome King of Westphalia o Under treaty of Campo Formio (Napoleon forced on them) Conditions: recognizes that the French has Northern Italy and left bank of Rhine Islands off of Greece that belonged to Austria (Ionian Islands) – went to France French Republics were created in Southern Italy Third Coalition 18051807 o Alexander I of Russia o Ulm 1805 o Trafalgar 1805: British fought (Lord Admiral Nelson dies) only battle Napoleon loses in 3 Coalition o Austerlitz 18051806: Resounding French victory; forced Francis II to dissolve HRE o Confederation of the Rhine: Napoleon creates Confederation out of all former HRE states (16 states, not including Austria) o JenaAuerstadt 1806: Prussia gets crushed by French cavalry (king flees into Russia and asks Alexander for protection) Opened Russia up to Napoleon o Friedland 1807: June 4: Russians are defeated; Alexander starts negotiations, Napoleon believes he has charmed him, but Alexander has a last laugh Russian promise of alliance against England: didn’t want Russia to send wheat to England (Continental System) Continental System will destroy Napoleon: so hellbent on not trading with England that his people start to hate him Treaty of Tilsit 1807 o Forced Russia not to trade with England Continental System: Berlin Decree 1806 – No British trade o Backfired because French were upset because they didn’t get British wool o Didn’t affect Britain – found other markets in recently freed Spanish Colonies in South America Peninsular War in Spain o French and Spanish armies occupy Portugal; all is well until France turns on Spain Portuguese royal family forced to flee to Brazil o Spain notable because of its use of guerrilla warfare, although was very underprepared in beginning Charles IV of Spain forced to abdicate, and son Ferdinand VII takes throne; later, Napoleon puts brother Joseph on the throne o Duke of Wellington played a major role with intervention of British o Ended formally in 1814 Austrian War of Liberation 1809 o Wittgenstein tries to undo Napoleon’s capture of Liepzig, but napoleon forces Prussia into a trap at Battle of Lutzen o Battle of Bautzen: Russia and Prussia surprise French troops o Armistice of Poischwitz 1813 o First major sense of Austrian Nationalism since Napoleon took over parts of it Napoleon’s Marriage to Marie Louise of Austria o In order to cement France’s recent (1810) alliance with Austria, Napoleon marries 18year old Marie Louise Son, Napoleon II, born in 1811 Grand Empire: French Empire, dependent states, allied states o French Empire: Direct control by Napoleon o Dependent States States ruled by Napoleon’s relatives Spain, Netherlands, Italy, Swiss Republic, Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of the Rhine, Westphalia o Allied States Defeated by Napoleon, but got to keep their monarch Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria Napoleonic Reforms within conquered lands o Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Kant, Hegel, and Beethoven were major thinkers in Germany Nationalism and Romanticism were fostered with Napoleon Resistance in Europe to Napoleon o Resentment in states because of Continental System; people didn’t like not being able to trade with England o German Nationalism was brewing, spurred on by Prussia o Romantic movement o Nationalism was often conservative Reforms in Prussia: Baron Stein o Came as a reaction to the defeat by Napoleon at JenaAuerstadt o Initiated by Baron Heinrich Stein, they used Enlightenment ideas Abolish serfdom, no monopoly of guilds (increase competition in economy), changed agricultural trade organizations, no more cabinets, etc French Invasion of Russia 1812 o France wanted to destroy Russian army and kill Alexander for not complying with notrade agreement (England) o Got support of Poland and began to invade Russia Eventually, Russia knew it was losing, so it started slashing and burning This left Napoleon without resources – most of his army died, Russia wound up winning Battle of Nations (Liepzig) 1813 o Russia, Austria, Prussia, Sweden against France Napoleon is weakened and loses support to warweariness Austrians capture Dolitz, French recapture Wachau On October 17, Jean Bernadotte (Swedish Crown Prince) defected to Confederation, betraying Napoleon, who eventually loses war o Dissolution of Confederation of the Rhine, Napoleon loses control of land east of the Rhine Metternich o Austrian diplomat and organizer of Congress of Vienna o The Congress Strong border states to prevent strong France Creating Netherlands (Holland + surrounding areas) and Italian State of Piedmont Prussia gets left bank of the Rhine Austria takes Tuscany and Milan Murat, despite being Napoleon’s right hand man, keeps throne of Naples Bourbons restored in Spain No unified Germany (yet) Treaty of Chaumont 1814: Quadruple alliance o Signed between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and England o Cease fire that returned France to prerevolution borders o Set balance of power for decades Restoration of the Bourbons (Louis XVIII) o Duke of Artois returns after death of Napoleon to First Treaty of Paris o Returns France to its 1792 borders o Napoleon is exiled to Elba (Italy)