A quantity of 0.225 g of a metal M (molar mass 27.0 g/mol) liberated 0.303 L of molecular hydrogen (measured at 17°C and 741 mmHg) from an excess of hydrochloric acid. Deduce from these data the corresponding equation, and write formulas for the oxide and sulfate of M.
4/4/16 Lecture 4 Social Psychology • scientific study of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors • Affect, Behavior, Cognition Social Influence • Group Conformity: adjusting beliefs, feelings, and behaviors to align with others in the group • Information social influence • influence from reliable information • private conformity—internal, personal beliefs changed • ex: interrogator asks a witness questions that are so convincing that the suspect becomes convinced that he actually did do it normative social influence • • influence based on social pressure • public conformity—external, change just to go with the group • ex: interrogator asks a witness questions for a long time and the suspect just admits that they did it after a while so that they can leave • Factors that influence conformity • number of people in a group • one person giving the correct response • one person giving the incorrect response • Obedience: engaging in a behavior that is commanded by an authority figure • can either be good (ex: obeying firefighter instructions) or bad (ex: becoming a Nazi) based on the outcome • Factors that decrease obedience • physical and psychological proximity to the learner • closer proximity increases personal responsibility • undermining authority • Bystander effect: presence of other people reduces the chance that any one person will help • Pluralistic ignorance • false belief that everyone else perceives a situation differently than you do but everyone feels the same way • ex: everyone in the group hates to drink and party but they all think that the rest of them do so they all go drink and party together • Kitty Genovese case: (she was stabbed to death) false belief: the situation wasn't an emergency (since nobody else was concerned) reality: it is an emergency influence on behavior: nobody helped • Diffusion of responsibility • the more people present in an emergency, the less each person feels responsible for helping • reducing the bystander effect: • point and direct “you call 911” “you get the life guard” • knowledge of the bystander effect Situational influences on helping • noticing the need to help • being in a happy mood • victim’s deservingness—people are more likely to help someone with a cane than a drunk person • time—more available time, the more likely they are to help 4/5/16 Lecture 5 • Deindividuation: tendency for people to engage in deviant behaviors when stripped of their typical identity • Is more likely to occur when: • you feel anonymous (ex: in costumes on Halloween, TPing houses) • you are adopting social roles (ex: in a group—mob riots) • you have low self-awareness (ex: headphones on and start singing out loud and not notice until you realize everyone is staring at you) demand characteristics: participants may act how they think the experimenters want them to act Social Perception • Social schema: mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about the world • useful because they allow us to not become overwhelmed by all pieces of info • influence the info that we notice • influence the associations • Self-concept: knowledge about who we are and what we are like • comprised of multiple self-schemas • self-reference effect: perceiving that our own beliefs and viewpoints are the norm; overestimating the degree to which others share our beliefs • ex: talking about a favorite show with a friend that doesn't know about it and saying “What How do you not know about this show, it’s so great” • Social Comparison Theory: evaluating our abilities and comparing ourselves to other people • upward: comparing us to people who are better than us on a trait or ability • can be motivating, but might make us feel worse about ourselves • downward: comparing us to people who are worse than us on a trait or ability • not motivating, makes us feel better about ourselves • Perceiving others—the halo effect: the tendency for one positive characteristic of a person to transfer to judgements of other positive characteristics • common occurrence is for people that are attractive (good people in movies are generally attractive while the bad people are generally unattractive) • Trait Impressions: some traits are weighted more heavily than others • central traits: have large influence on impressions of other people • peripheral: have small influence on impressions of other people • Inferring traits from facial features • we judge “baby-faced” adults differently then “mature-faced” adults 4/6/16 Lecture 6 Attributions: inferences we make about the causes of other people’s behaviors • dispositional—attribution made to an internal cause of behavior • more likely to make these for other people’s behavior • situational—attribution made to external cause of behavior • more likely to make these for our own behaviors Intergroup Bias • Social Categorization: classification of people into groups based on common attributes • benefits: function as schemas, aids impression formation, saves time and energy • costs: overestimate between-group differences, underestimate within-group differences, basis for stereotyping and prejudice • Affect • prejudice: negative feelings or attitudes toward people based on their group membership • has become socially unacceptable: used to be overt, blatant; now is subtle, covert • Behavior • discrimination: negative behavior directed against people because of their group membership • can be negative behavior directed against a certain group or preferential treatment for one group over another • blatant ex: writing hateful things toward a group on buildings • subtle ex: music auditions by gender • Cognition • stereotypes: cognitive beliefs that associate people with certain traits based on their group membership • culturally pervasive • observations from environment • expected social roles • subtyping • exceptions to stereotype (ex: working women (vs stay at home women)) • Positive stereotype (ex: women are kind and nurturing) consequences positive: conform to expectations • • negative: inaccurate impressions, can justify pre-existing social hierarchies • prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes are independent, consequential, and bi-directional (one can lead to the other and visa versa) • In-groups and out-groups • out-group homogeneity: tendency to view outgrip members as highly similar and to view the members of our own in-group as more diverse • in-group bias: preference for in-group over out-group • reducing intergroup bias • motivation • contact hypothesis • Robbert’s Cave Study • tested how to reduce intergroup conflict between 5th grade boys • Stereotype Threat: apprehension that one’s behavior might confirm a stereotype while in a stereotype relevant situation • impairs performance in the stereotyped domain • ex: Steele andAronson, 1995 4/7/16 Lecture 7 Personality Psychology • personality: the unique and relatively enduring set of thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and motives that characterize an individual Major theoretical approaches • PsychoanalyticApproach • unconscious forces drive personality and behavior and they can express themselves in distorted forms • Frued’s (1856-1939) model of the mind • Id—seeks pleasure, impulsive • Ego—makes realistic attempt to satisfy id’s desires • Superego—sense of conscience and morality • unconscious defense mechanisms: used to protect against anxiety-provoking thoughts and feelings and against threats from the outside world • repression, reaction formation, projection, sublimation, etc. • Neo-Freudians similarities: unconscious processes, importance of early childhood experiences • • differences (from Freud): less emphasis on sexuality and more on social drives, more optimistic about personality chance • Behavioral and Social LearningApproach • personality shaped by learned behaviors • behavioral learning: adopting behaviors that have been associated with good outcomes • social learning: personality development also involves thought and cognition • social observation (bobo doll experiment) • watch video • HumanisticApproach • self-actualization (being the best person you can be) as core motive • free-will (people have complete control over their actions) • optimistic about human nature (people are inherently good) • approach came form the humanistic movement • Two prominent theorists: • Carl Rogers • achieve fulfillment by receiving unconditional positive regard • people need to feel completely accepted • Abraham Maslow • people can only achieve self-actualization after they have reached all of their needs from the hierarchy of needs (from bottom to top: physiological, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization) • BiologicalApproach • assumes that differences in personality are based in part on physiological differences • genes, central nervous system, neurotransmitters, hormones • Hans Eysenck model • genes—> arousal, sensitivity to stimulation—> personality, cognition, behavior • three dimensions of personality • neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism • cortical arousal • introverts—higher baseline levels • extroverts—lower baseline levels • Twin studies: measuring the correlations of personality traits among twins • correlations between twins raised together and twins raised apart were very similar in the Minnesota Twin Study • Conclusions: • personality traits are at least partially heritable • much of the variability in personality is due to environmental factors • TraitApproach identifies major personality traits that are consistent across situations and stable across time • • comparative because the amount of traits in people can be compared between people • predict behaviors and important life outcomes • Big Five Model (O.C.E.A.N.) • openness to experience: how open people are to experience different things • conscientiousness: how reliable, organized, and dependable someone is • extraversion: outgoing • agreeableness: how well someone gets along with people • neuroticism: being sensitive to stress • traits are dimensional and change across lifespan • conscientiousness and agreeableness tend to increase