×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Chemistry: Atoms First - 1 Edition - Chapter 12 - Problem 89qp
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Chemistry: Atoms First - 1 Edition - Chapter 12 - Problem 89qp

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

Freeze-dried coffee is prepared by freezing brewed coffee

Chemistry: Atoms First | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780073511160 | Authors: Julia Burdge, Jason Overby ISBN: 9780073511160 60

Solution for problem 89QP Chapter 12

Chemistry: Atoms First | 1st Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Chemistry: Atoms First | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780073511160 | Authors: Julia Burdge, Jason Overby

Chemistry: Atoms First | 1st Edition

4 5 1 284 Reviews
12
5
Problem 89QP

Freeze-dried coffee is prepared by freezing brewed coffee and then removing the ice component with a vacuum pump. Describe the phase changes taking place during these processes.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

GeneticsWeek11Notes MONDAY Genomics:DNAsequencingisthebasisforidentifyingandmappingallgenesina genome • Structural o Analyzingnucleotidesequencestoidentifygenesandothersequences suchasregulatoryelements o Annotation–toidentifygenes o Sequences–thousandsofgenomeshavebeensequenced o 2approaches § Clonebyclone–takesgenomes,dividesintocosmids/artificial chromosomes,backsaredividedthensequenced.Placedin order.Manytimesover.Takesforever! § Shotgun–cutintomultipleoverlappingfragments.Let computerfindoverlapsandsequenceit.Oldway. § Modernway–throwentiregenomeintogeneratorandletit work.Nocuttingitup.Alignedinshotgunapproach,aka contigs. § Pairedendtagging–fragmentgenome,diluteandadd DNAligase,itcircularizesthencombinetogether.Thencut somewhereandsequencethroughjunction,cantellhowfar apartbasesare. o Genomesequencedmanytimestoensureaccuracy.Assembledand compiled o Analysisofgenomesequences § Identifyingopenreadingframes(ORF)–nostopcodonsand maycodeprotein § Findpromotersandtranscriptionandtranslationinitiation sites § Findingintronsandexonsineukgenomes § Analyzingpredictedproteinsequencestopredictprotein function § GENBANK–genomicdatabase,atNCBI,online InDNAsequence,howmanypotentialreadingframesarethere a. One,theonethatcodesforprotein b. Two,becausecouldbeineitherstrandofDNA c. Three,cuzribosomescouldstartatanyATGinsequence d. Six,cuzcouldstartatanypositionineitherstrand e. LarryHarshman • Functional o Attempttoidentifyfunctionsofgenes o SomeORF’shaveknownfunctionfromotherorganisms,othersidk o BLASTcomparesquerysequencetoGenBankdatabase o Revealshomologousgenes(evolutionarily-related)indifferent organisms o OrthologsandParalogs § Homologousgenesfromdifferentspeciesthoughttohave descendedfromcommonancestorcalledorthologs.B-globin genesofhumanandgorilla § Homologousgenesinsamespeciescalledparalogs.Humana- globinandb-globin o Findingfunction § Genesequenceàpredictpolypeptidesequence § Polypeptideanalyizedforspecificproteindomainsandmotifs • Proteindomains:ionchannels,membrane-spanning regions,secretion,andexportsignals • Motifs:helix-turn-helix,leucinezipper,zincfinger motifs o Vibriocholeragenome–killedmanypeople,inintestinaltractand givesyoudiarrhea. • Comparative • Metagenomics WEDNESDAY HumanGenomeProject • Lessthan2%genomecodesforproteins • Only25,000proteincodinggenes • Manygenescodeformultipleproteins • Functionalcategorieshavebeenassignedforhumangenesonbasisof o Functionsdeterminedpreviously o Comparisontoknowngenesandpredictedproteinsequencesfrom otherspecies o Predictionsbasedonannotationandanalysisofproteinfunctional domainsandmotifs Infunctionalgenomics,genein2differentspeciesthoughttobedescendedfromgene incommonancestorisan a. Ortholog b. Paralog c. Metalog d. Analog e. Lincolnlog “Omics”Revolution–neweraofresearchmethods • Proteomics • Metabolomics • Metagenomics • Transcriptionmics • Etceteromics o Stone-agegenomicsusingsmallamtsofancientDNAfromboneand othertissue o Datausedtostudyevolutionaryrelatednessofvariousextinctand present-dayspecies • J.CraigVenter–sequencedowngenome.Firstdiploidsequence,previous genomesequencecompositeofseveralindividuals,akaaveragesequence • SingleNucleotidePolymorephisms(SNPs) o Variationbetweendifferenthumans=polymorphism o SinglebasechangesSNPs o Verycommon! o Alleles(differsbyonenucleotide o Oftenhavenophenotype • Venter’sSequence o >4.1millionvariants(1,288,319novel) o 3,213,401SNPs o 53,823blocksubstitutions(2-206bp) o 292,102heterozygousindels(1-571bp) o 559,473homozygousindels(1-82,711bp) o 44%ofgenesareheterozygousforoneormorevariants o 2chromosomeswere99.5%identical • COMPARATIVEGenomics o Prokaryoticgenomesgenerallylessthan5Mb,lessthan5000genes o ManyprokaryoticgeneomesaresinglecircularDNAchromosome,but somelinearandsomespeiceshavemorethan1DNAmolecules o Manyprokaryotesalsocarry1+plasmids o Eukaryotes–highlyvariablegenomesize! o Share30%ofhumangeneswithyeast.80%withmiceand98%in chimpanzees o Manymutatedgenesinvolvedinhumandiseasesarepresentinmodel organisms o Share75%ofgenomewithdogs.Theyhavegeneticdisordersalso (Epilepsy,OCD),sexchromosomeaneuploids FRIDAY Comparativegenomics • Identifymemberofmultigenefamiliesincludingnonfunctionalpseudogenes • Groupofrelatedmultigenefamiliescalledsuperfamily • A-andB-form2clusters,shareDNAsequenceidentities o 3genesinA-globin,5genesinB-globin Metagenomicsappliesgenomictechniquesttoenvionrmentalsamples • Sequencegenomesfromentirecommunities • Allowsidentificationandanalysisofallorganismsinsample • Bacteriainlakes,soil,oceanorbacteriaandphageingut • SequenceallDNAandputinseparategenomesofeveryorganism o Teachmoreaboutbacterialspeciesandviruses o Greatpotentialforidentifyinggeneswithnovelfunctions,might advancemedicineandbiotechnology Transcriptome(RNA)analysisrevealsprofilesofexpressedgenesincellsand tissues • Globalanalysisofgeneexpression • Microarrayanalysisallowssequencingofallexpressedgenessimultaneously (oldtechnology) o Lookatgridandcanseewhatisexpressedandhowmuch Transposon–McClintock DescribedstructureofDNA–WatsonandCrick “X-raysaremutagenic”–Muller Generepressionineuk–Cytosinemethylation Southernblotting–Edwardsouthern B-galactosidaseexpressedconsitutivelyI-otherspos ClearedofcrimebyDNAevidence–Buckland Proteomicsidentifiesandanalyzesproteinsincell • Kindalikeexploringphenotype • Proteome–completesetofproteinsencodedbygenome • Genescanmakedifferentproteins • Proteinscanbemodified(Insulin) • Phosphorylationofproteins • 2DGE–separatebycharge.WillmoveacrosspHgradientandstopwhen neutralized.Thenseparatebysize(smallergoesfurther) o Chains–samesize,sameproteinswithdifferentconfigurations(post- transcriptionalmodifications) o Sendtomassspectrosystem • Massspeccanbeusedonfossilstoo • Systemsbiology–incorporatesdatafromareasofbiologytoanalyze interactions(AKAInteractome) • Networkmap–sketchshowinginteractingproteins,genes,othermolecules • Systemsbiologybecomingimportantfordrugdiscoveryanddevelopment process • Databasesbeingmadeformanyhumandiseases

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 12, Problem 89QP is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Chemistry: Atoms First
Edition: 1
Author: Julia Burdge, Jason Overby
ISBN: 9780073511160

Chemistry: Atoms First was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073511160. The answer to “Freeze-dried coffee is prepared by freezing brewed coffee and then removing the ice component with a vacuum pump. Describe the phase changes taking place during these processes.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 27 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 89QP from chapter: 12 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 08/07/17, 05:01AM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: coffee, ice, brewed, component, describe. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 25 chapters, and 3129 solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: Atoms First , edition: 1. Since the solution to 89QP from 12 chapter was answered, more than 403 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer.

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

Freeze-dried coffee is prepared by freezing brewed coffee