In designing an experiment, the researcher can often choose many different levels of the various factors in order to try to find the best combination at which to operate. As an illustration, suppose the researcher is studying a certain chemical reaction and can choose four levels of temperature, five different pressures, and two different catalysts. (a) To consider all possible combinations, how many experiments would need to be conducted? (b) Often in preliminary experimentation, each factor is restricted to two levels. With the three factors noted, how many experiments would need to be run to cover all possible combinations with each of the three factors at two levels? (Note: This is often called a 23 design.)

Lecture 5: Probability 7.1 Random Circumstance and Interpretations of Probability - A few ways to think about PROBABILITY: (1) Personal or Subjective Probability - P(A) = the degree to which a given individual believes that the event A will happen. (2) Long term relative frequency P(A) = proportion of times ‘A’...