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Let V be the Euclidean space ~ considered in Exercise g. Find which of the pairs of

Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780132296540 | Authors: Bernard Kolman David Hill ISBN: 9780132296540 301

Solution for problem 22 Chapter 5.3

Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications | 9th Edition

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Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780132296540 | Authors: Bernard Kolman David Hill

Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications | 9th Edition

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Problem 22

Let V be the Euclidean space ~ considered in Exercise g. Find which of the pairs of vectors listed there are or thogonal.

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Development: Chapter 9  Development o Sequence of age related changes  Physical  Emotional  Cognitive o Continuous or gradual o Focus on development over entire lifetime  Research in Development o Longitudinal (within subject)  Same participants all the time (baby to adult) o Cross-sectional (between subjects)  Difference between 4 years and 8 years old (so different children)  Prenatal Development o Time from conception to birth o 3 stages  Germinal (Fertilization to Implantation)  Embryonic (2 weeks to 2 months)  Very vulnerable  End is when first bone cell is developed  Fetal (2 months to 40 weeks)  All systems complete  Age of Viability (~ 24 weeks)  This can effect later development  Prenatal Environment o Nutrition  Birth Weight  Obesity  Schizophrenia  Antisocial personality disorder  Depression (in girls)  Cognitive impairment (attention, planning/execution of fine motor skills)  Drug/Alcohol use  Teratogens o Anything that damages development  3 drinks/day  5 point decrease in IQ  Fetal Alcohol syndrome (FAS) o Certain patterns physically and cognitively  Microcephaly  Heart defects  Hyperactivity  Mental Retardation  Working memory  Developmental delay  Depression  Lying  Suicide  Criminal Behavior o Stays forever  Smoking  Impaired cognitive development, ADD  Childhood development o Motor Development  Reflexes for survival  Examine them to make sure neurological function is intact  Rooting/sucking o Turn head to find milk  Moro (0-4 months) o Startling the baby o Eventually this goes away  Grasp (0-6 months)  Stepping/walking (0-3 months)  Babinski (until ~2 years old) o Stroke the heal of the foot and it will go back  Trends  Driven by child o Large ranges in milestone (walking 11-15 months) o Cultural constraints  Some try to do everything they can to get baby to walk and some people in different countries hold the baby more o Dynamic systems theory  Childhood development determined by biological, cultural, or environmental factors  Proximodistal  Center to outer parts  Cephalocaudal  Top to bottom o Social and Emotional Development  Attachment-Emotional Bond with Caregiver  WWII Studies  Many babies left in orphanages because parents died in war  Harry Harlow  Studies effects of bond with caregiver  Rhesus Monkeys o No social contact  pathologies o Caregivers provide social contact  Attachment (emotional bond)  Determine primary caregiver in first 6 months  Emotional center of universe o Separation anxiety (6-8 months)  Types o Strange situation experiment o Secure  Comforted when caregiver comes back (60%) o Avoidant  Avoid or ignores caregiver when comes back (20%) o Ambivalent/Resistant  Wants comfort but can’t be comforted when caregiver comes back (15%) o Disorganized  Sometimes comforted or not when caregiver comes back (5%) o Cognitive Development  How babies begin to understand the world  Much slower process  Emergence of abilities to understand the world  Piaget  4 stages of Development  Children as active thinkers  Schemas used to understand the world:  Assimilation o New info is incorporated into the schema  Accommodation o Schema changes to allow new info to be included  Piaget’s 4 Stages of Development 1) Sensorimotor stages  Experiencing the world through senses and actions  Ages: 0-2 years  Developmental Phenomena: i. Object permanence (~8 months)  Even if can’t see it anymore, still exists 2) Preoperational Stage  Representing things with words and images  Ages: 2-6 or 7  Substages i. Symbolic function (2-4)  Symbols and language  Imaginary play begins ii. Intuitive thought (4-7)  Ask why  Centration a. Children hone in on one aspect or characteristic of something  Developmental phenomena i. Pretend play ii. Egocentrism  Can’t share other’s viewpoints iii. Animism  All things are living iv. Language Development  Cannot perform Operations i. Reversible actions ii. Conservation  Physical quantities remain constant 3) Concrete Operational Stage  Ages: 7-11  Developmental Phenomena i. Think logically about concrete events ii. Reversibility  Mathematical operations a. If 5+3=8 then 8-3=5 iii. Decentration  Elimination of egocentrism 4) Formal Operational Stage  Ages: 12 years – adulthood  Developmental Phenomena i. Abstract logic ii. Potential for moral reasoning  Limitations to Piaget’s Theory o Overestimates age differences  Object permanence can be seen at 3 months  Measure a babies’ gaze time during an impossible event there is a longer gaze time because they know something is off about it  Not all adults can think abstractly o Underestimates social environment  Little Scientists  Gopnik  Children can take on other’s points of view  Bowl of goldfish and bowl of broccoli and use 15 and 18 months old children  Researcher says eww to the goldfish o 15 month old still gives goldfish because they like it o 18 month old gives broccoli because they understand that the researcher likes broccoli more  Vygotsky  Social interaction  Language is essential to development o Noncommuncative speech  Thinking out loud o Inner speech  Verbal though  Richer set of symbols o Dialogue between child and caregiver o Collaboration and cognitive development  Scaffolding  Caregiver changes where needed to support child  Zone of Proximal development  Place where child understands  Dialogue improves understanding o Little Apprentice  Development of Moral Reasoning o Associated with cognitive development o Different from moral behavior o Kohlberg’s Stage Theory  Preconventional (Punishments and Rewards)  Conventional (approval and authority)  Postconventional (social contract and conscience) Adolescence and Adulthood  Stages of Psychosocial Development o Erikson’s Theory  As people grow up think about different issues  Focus on Identity vs. Role Confusion and Intimacy Vs. Isolation  Adolescence o Begins with sexual maturity  Ages 11 – 14 o Last until beginning of adulthood  Ages 18 -21 o Sudden marked change  Sex characteristics (primary and secondary)  Brain density o Puberty  The bodily changes associated with sexual maturity  Starts at different ages for everyone  Generation trend  Older generations: puberty occurred later o Age 16/17  Younger generation: puberty can start earlier o Age 13/14 o Protracted Adolescence  Earlier onset of puberty  Environmental cause  Psychological impact  Discrepancy between physical maturity and taking on adult roles o Emerging Adulthood  5 milestones in Transition to adulthood:  Completing school  Leaving home  Becoming financially independent  Marrying  Having a child (or no) o Adulthood  Starts between 18-21 and ends at death  Changes are more gradual and less noticeable  Physical changes  Early 20s are peak years for health, stamina and vigor  From 26-30 your body will slowly begin to decline  Cognitive changes:  Sharpest in our early 20s  Compensate by using our brain more skillfully  Emotional changes  Orientation shift from the future to present  Focus on positive  Fewer friends

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 5.3, Problem 22 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications
Edition: 9
Author: Bernard Kolman David Hill
ISBN: 9780132296540

Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780132296540. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications, edition: 9. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 57 chapters, and 1519 solutions. Since the solution to 22 from 5.3 chapter was answered, more than 309 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “Let V be the Euclidean space ~ considered in Exercise g. Find which of the pairs of vectors listed there are or thogonal.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 23 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 22 from chapter: 5.3 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 01/30/18, 04:18PM.

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Let V be the Euclidean space ~ considered in Exercise g. Find which of the pairs of