Let V be the Euclidean space ~ considered in Exercise g. Find which of the pairs of vectors listed there are or thogonal.
Development: Chapter 9 Development o Sequence of age related changes Physical Emotional Cognitive o Continuous or gradual o Focus on development over entire lifetime Research in Development o Longitudinal (within subject) Same participants all the time (baby to adult) o Cross-sectional (between subjects) Difference between 4 years and 8 years old (so different children) Prenatal Development o Time from conception to birth o 3 stages Germinal (Fertilization to Implantation) Embryonic (2 weeks to 2 months) Very vulnerable End is when first bone cell is developed Fetal (2 months to 40 weeks) All systems complete Age of Viability (~ 24 weeks) This can effect later development Prenatal Environment o Nutrition Birth Weight Obesity Schizophrenia Antisocial personality disorder Depression (in girls) Cognitive impairment (attention, planning/execution of fine motor skills) Drug/Alcohol use Teratogens o Anything that damages development 3 drinks/day 5 point decrease in IQ Fetal Alcohol syndrome (FAS) o Certain patterns physically and cognitively Microcephaly Heart defects Hyperactivity Mental Retardation Working memory Developmental delay Depression Lying Suicide Criminal Behavior o Stays forever Smoking Impaired cognitive development, ADD Childhood development o Motor Development Reflexes for survival Examine them to make sure neurological function is intact Rooting/sucking o Turn head to find milk Moro (0-4 months) o Startling the baby o Eventually this goes away Grasp (0-6 months) Stepping/walking (0-3 months) Babinski (until ~2 years old) o Stroke the heal of the foot and it will go back Trends Driven by child o Large ranges in milestone (walking 11-15 months) o Cultural constraints Some try to do everything they can to get baby to walk and some people in different countries hold the baby more o Dynamic systems theory Childhood development determined by biological, cultural, or environmental factors Proximodistal Center to outer parts Cephalocaudal Top to bottom o Social and Emotional Development Attachment-Emotional Bond with Caregiver WWII Studies Many babies left in orphanages because parents died in war Harry Harlow Studies effects of bond with caregiver Rhesus Monkeys o No social contact pathologies o Caregivers provide social contact Attachment (emotional bond) Determine primary caregiver in first 6 months Emotional center of universe o Separation anxiety (6-8 months) Types o Strange situation experiment o Secure Comforted when caregiver comes back (60%) o Avoidant Avoid or ignores caregiver when comes back (20%) o Ambivalent/Resistant Wants comfort but can’t be comforted when caregiver comes back (15%) o Disorganized Sometimes comforted or not when caregiver comes back (5%) o Cognitive Development How babies begin to understand the world Much slower process Emergence of abilities to understand the world Piaget 4 stages of Development Children as active thinkers Schemas used to understand the world: Assimilation o New info is incorporated into the schema Accommodation o Schema changes to allow new info to be included Piaget’s 4 Stages of Development 1) Sensorimotor stages Experiencing the world through senses and actions Ages: 0-2 years Developmental Phenomena: i. Object permanence (~8 months) Even if can’t see it anymore, still exists 2) Preoperational Stage Representing things with words and images Ages: 2-6 or 7 Substages i. Symbolic function (2-4) Symbols and language Imaginary play begins ii. Intuitive thought (4-7) Ask why Centration a. Children hone in on one aspect or characteristic of something Developmental phenomena i. Pretend play ii. Egocentrism Can’t share other’s viewpoints iii. Animism All things are living iv. Language Development Cannot perform Operations i. Reversible actions ii. Conservation Physical quantities remain constant 3) Concrete Operational Stage Ages: 7-11 Developmental Phenomena i. Think logically about concrete events ii. Reversibility Mathematical operations a. If 5+3=8 then 8-3=5 iii. Decentration Elimination of egocentrism 4) Formal Operational Stage Ages: 12 years – adulthood Developmental Phenomena i. Abstract logic ii. Potential for moral reasoning Limitations to Piaget’s Theory o Overestimates age differences Object permanence can be seen at 3 months Measure a babies’ gaze time during an impossible event there is a longer gaze time because they know something is off about it Not all adults can think abstractly o Underestimates social environment Little Scientists Gopnik Children can take on other’s points of view Bowl of goldfish and bowl of broccoli and use 15 and 18 months old children Researcher says eww to the goldfish o 15 month old still gives goldfish because they like it o 18 month old gives broccoli because they understand that the researcher likes broccoli more Vygotsky Social interaction Language is essential to development o Noncommuncative speech Thinking out loud o Inner speech Verbal though Richer set of symbols o Dialogue between child and caregiver o Collaboration and cognitive development Scaffolding Caregiver changes where needed to support child Zone of Proximal development Place where child understands Dialogue improves understanding o Little Apprentice Development of Moral Reasoning o Associated with cognitive development o Different from moral behavior o Kohlberg’s Stage Theory Preconventional (Punishments and Rewards) Conventional (approval and authority) Postconventional (social contract and conscience) Adolescence and Adulthood Stages of Psychosocial Development o Erikson’s Theory As people grow up think about different issues Focus on Identity vs. Role Confusion and Intimacy Vs. Isolation Adolescence o Begins with sexual maturity Ages 11 – 14 o Last until beginning of adulthood Ages 18 -21 o Sudden marked change Sex characteristics (primary and secondary) Brain density o Puberty The bodily changes associated with sexual maturity Starts at different ages for everyone Generation trend Older generations: puberty occurred later o Age 16/17 Younger generation: puberty can start earlier o Age 13/14 o Protracted Adolescence Earlier onset of puberty Environmental cause Psychological impact Discrepancy between physical maturity and taking on adult roles o Emerging Adulthood 5 milestones in Transition to adulthood: Completing school Leaving home Becoming financially independent Marrying Having a child (or no) o Adulthood Starts between 18-21 and ends at death Changes are more gradual and less noticeable Physical changes Early 20s are peak years for health, stamina and vigor From 26-30 your body will slowly begin to decline Cognitive changes: Sharpest in our early 20s Compensate by using our brain more skillfully Emotional changes Orientation shift from the future to present Focus on positive Fewer friends