Let \V be the subspace of Rs spanned by the vectors 1-1',. W 1. 1-1', . 1-1'4. I-I's. where 1-1' 1=[2 - I 3 0]. 1-1'2 = [I 2 0 - 2]. 1-1'3 = [4 3 5 - 4]. 1-1'4 = [3 2 - I I). I-I's = [2 - I 2 - 2 3]. Find a basis for W.i.
Chapter 7 Definitions: Learning: the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimulus (as in classical conditioning) or a responses and its consequences (as in operant conditioning) Stimulus: any event or situation that evokes a response Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language Classical conditioning : a type of learning in which one learns to link to or more stimuli and anticipate events (2 STIMULI) Behaviorism: the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2) Neutral Stimulus (NS): in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned Response (UR): in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth) Unconditioned Stimulus (US): in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally – naturally and automatically triggers a response (UR) Conditioned Response (CR): in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) Conditioned Stimulus (CS): in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR) Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response, occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response Discrimination: in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher Law of effect: Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely Operant chamber: in operant conditioning research, a chamber (aka a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforce: attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking Reinforcement: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of desired behaviors Positive reinforcement: increasing behaviors by pressing positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response Negative reinforcement: increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer after a response, strengthens the response (not punishment) Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need. Conditioned reinforce: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer Fixedinterval schedule: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (p. 250) Variableinterval schedule: in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals Respondent behavior: behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus. Operant behavior: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences. Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. Intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. ( Extrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment. Observational learning: learning by observing others Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior