These exercises are not divided by category, although they are roughly in the order of the topics in the chapter. They are not paired. The element oxygen has three naturally occurring isotopes, with 8, 9, and 10 neutrons in the nucleus, respectively. (a) Write the full chemical symbols for these three isotopes. (b) Describe the similarities and differences between the three kinds of atoms of oxygen.
Atoms: smallest quantity of matter that still retains the properties of matter Elements: a substance that can’t be broken down into two or more simpler substances by any means (if it’s broken down any further, it is no longer that element Law of Conservation of Mass: when chemical reactions occur, no detectable gain or loss of mass occurs Law of Definite Proportions: i n a given chemical compound (ex. H20) the elements are always combined in the definite proportions by mass. (ex. H20 is always two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen) Dalton’s Atomic Theory: Matter is made of atoms (still true) Atoms are indestructible ( false, the atom bomb exists) In a pure sample of elements, all the atoms in it will be identical in ma