These exercises are not divided by category, although they are roughly in the order of the topics in the chapter. They are not paired.
Using a suitable reference such as the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physicsorhttp://www.webelements.com, look up the following information for nickel:
(a) the number of known isotopes, (b) the atomic masses (in amu), (c) the natural abundances of the five most abundant isotopes.
Chapter 9 - Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model A. Hybridization 1. The mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies B. Hybrid Orbitals 1. Orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom C. Evidence for hybridization of carbon - Methane and sp 3 1. Four bonds of equal length and strength Carbon's isolatedconfiguration Carbon's hybridized configuration 2. Four effective pairs of electrons surround the carbon 3. "Whenever a set of equivalent tetrahedral atomic orbitals is required by an atom, this model assumes that the atom adopts a set of sp orbitals; 2 the atom becomes hybridized" D. sp hybridization 1. Trigonal planar structure, 120° angle, in ethene (ethylene) rules out sp hybridization 2. sp hybridization creates 3 identical orbitals of intermediate energy and length and leaves one unhybridized p orbital 3. 3 effective pairs of electrons surround the carbon (double bond treated as one effective pair) 1 4. Sigma bonds (σ bond) a. Bond in which the electron pair is shared in an area centered on a