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Visualizing ConceptsNitrogen monoxide and oxygen react to

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 8E Chapter 3

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 8E

Nitrogen monoxide and oxygen react to form nitrogen dioxide. Consider the mixture of NO and O2 shown in the accompanying diagram. The blue spheres represent N, and the red ones represent O. (a) Draw a representation of the product mixture, assuming that the reaction goes to completion. What is the limiting reactant in this case? (b) How many NO2 molecules would you draw as products if the reaction had a percent yield of 75%? [Section 3.7

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Sudan,Ethiopiaand Somalia Sudan: BritainlookedatSudanaspart of theSuezstrategicregionandRedSeastrategicregion.Theysawit as partof Egypt,neverasits owncolony.Itwas controlledfromCairo,muchlikeSomalilandwascontrolled fromAden. ThecapitalofmodernSudanisKhartoum,wheretheBlueandWhiteNilescometogether. TheWorldWars: DuringWWI,Egyptwas sickof Britainandwantedfreedom,butthenWWIIcame.FromWWI on,Sudan wasjusta part of Egypt,and theywerecontrolledasone.In1952, afterWWII,Egypt was goingthrough significantchanges,andthewidertrendofnationalismthatsweptAfricaafterWWIIhadtakenroot thereaswell. WWIIawakenednationalismainthecolonies,becauseitwasawarofideology,withfascismtryingto destroywesternideasoffreedom.Afterbeatingthefascists,westernEuropetriedtorevitalisetheir valuesoffreedom,andthisledtoideasthatpeopleshouldrulethemselves.Fascismisverysimilarto colonialism,andtheyhadjustfoughtfascism.AnothermajorcontributionwastheformingoftheUN, whichwasjoinedbyLatinAmericawhichwasalreadyfreeandAsiancountriesthatwerebecoming decolonised.Finally,thewarhaddestroyedthemajorcolonialpowers,theylostalotofresourcesand losttheireconomicpower. Thetwonewsuperpowerswerenotcolonialpowers.Alsosignificantwastheemergenceofthe nationalisteliteinthecolonies.Thefirstelitehadbeenthechildrenoftraditionalleaderswhowere moreinterestedinreformingcolonialismtobetreatedequally,butwerenotintunewiththemasses. ThepeoplewhohadfoughtinEuropesawthefightingandpovertythere,andtheywantedoutofthe brutalcolonialregimes.Allthesepeoplewerethecommonersandsawwhatwashappeningintherest oftheworld,andwantedout. Sudanand Egypt inthe 1950s: InEgyptin 1952, 3 movementsconfrontedEgyptianindependence.Onemovement:Egypthaditsown monarchy,butitwas verycorruptand elitist.TheBritishputtheminplaceandrespectedthem.A secondmovement,mostlyintheSudan,wastheMuslimBrotherhood.Theywereareligiousmovement thatidealisedtheircultureandsawanychangeas a threatto Egyptianculture.Thethirdelementwas themilitary.YoungofficerstrainedinBritainwantedtodevelopEgypt,makeitmorelikeRussiaandthe US. Nasser(sometimesspelledNasir)emergedastheleaderofEgypt,andhewantedtoindustrialiseitso thatitcouldproduceitsown things.Hewas sickofjust makingcottonforEurope.He wasveryradical in whathewantedtodo,and foughtagainsttheMB a lot. Hetriedto influenceSudan,sayingiftheygot ridoftheBritishtheycouldbeindependent.Hewastryingtosuggestself-governanceforthem,andit wasfirstmadeitsowncolonyandthen becameeffectivelyindependentaround1956. Sudanhadtwobasicreligiousmovementsthatwerecommon.OnewasaMahdistmovementcalled Ansar.Itwas a productof earlierresistancetocolonialruleintheSudan,withareligiousleader organisingresistanceagainsttheBritishandEgyptians.HecreatedaMahdistatethere.That movement haditsownsuccessors,theAnsarmovement,ledbyhisson.TheBritishcreatedanothermovement calledKhatimiyyatocounterthenationalismatthatperiod.Intheend,politicalpartieswereintroduced by1956. Generally,afterWWII,Europeansbuiltthemodelofdemocracyintheircolonies.TheBritishstartedto createaparliamentandconstitutionandelections.TheMahdistmovementcreatedamajorpolitical partycalledtheUmmaparty. Themodelsthatwerebeingmadeweren'tgoingtowork,because democracyneedsanestablishedbackground.Upuntilthe1950s theyweren'tinterestedinthat,they werealldictatorialstateswithnooneallowedtoexpressthemselves.Allofasudden,afterthefallof fascism,westernEuropetriedtomakethecoloniesmorelikethem.Thesemodelsweredestinedtofail. Thisisstillthecase,aswesaw withtheArab SpringinplaceslikeLibyaandTunisia.Fromthe1960s, colonialpowersgaveindependenceintheformofdemocraticmodels. IttookBritain150 yearsto makea democraticsystem.Toevengetclose,theyneededanindustrialclass andstructures.Theytriedtoimposeitsuddenlyfrom1950and on inthecolonies,andtheconditions werenotright.TheyforcedtheMahdistreligiousmovementtobecomeaparty.Therewasalsoa NationalUnionistParty,whichwasrunbytheKhatimiyya.TheyhadtoexistwithintheBritish constitutionandthesetwocompetedinelections.TheUmmagroup,theMahdists,wereveryanti- Egyptian.TheUnionists,however,werepro-Egyptian. EgyptclaimedtheSudan,andNasserwantedSudantobeintegratedintoEgypt.Sudanbecameamajor forceafterindependencein1956. TheBritishweremoreinterestedinNorthernSudanafterthis. RegionalconflictinSudan: Sudanisdividedintotworegions,northandsouth.NorthernSudanhasathousandyearhistoryofArabs cominginandtradingand integrating,ahistoryofIslamisationandArabisation.TheyareMuslimand speakArabic.Duringthecolonialperiod,thisregionwascontrolledandruledseparatelyfromthesouth. SouthSudanisChristian,andhasitsown variousNiloticorAzandelanguages. TheBritishdidnotallow ChristianmissionariestogototheNorth,onlythesouth.The SouthbecameChristianandsortofEnglish speaking.IntheNorth,it'sArabicwithalittleEnglish.TheBritishallowedtraditionalreligiousleadersto ruleNorthernSudan,aspartof theirsystemofindirectrule.Themosteffective,efficientandcheapway torulepeopleistoletthemrulethemselvesandhavetheirrulersworkforyou.Thetraditionalleader wasloyaltothenewpower,notto thepeople. IntheSouth,theBritishalsousedindirectrulethroughtraditionalleaders,butnotIslamicrule.They triedtoputthetwo regionstogetherin1956, and themore organisedNorthwoundupruling.AsSudan becameindependent,thesouthernoneshadnosayinanything.TheNorthernerswereamajorfactorin controllingtheSouth.Therewerevaguepromisesaboutcreatingasinglestate,doingsomethingabout thedivide,buttheconstitutionjustsaidSudanwasanIslamicstate,buttheSouthwasChristian. In1962, the firstcivilwaremerged.Colonialismcreatedtwosocietieswithtwotraditions,andputthem togetherandgaveoneofthemallthepower.Thiswasalwaysgoingto happen.Aseparatistmovement inSouthSudancalledAnyanyaemerged,andwantedtomaketheirownstateandleavetheNorth,who didnothingforthem.TheyunderstoodthattheBritishhadleftthemfordead,prettymuch.Insteadof addressingtheSouthernproblem,thenorthernleadershadjusttakenoverandfeudedbetweenthe Ummasand NationalUnionists. FirstMilitaryCoup: Therewasa militarycoupin1958, aftertheUmma party withdrewformthecoalitiongovernment they'dformedwiththeNationalUnionistsin1956.This oftenhappenedafterindependenceinAfrica. Ghanabecameindependentin1957,and in 1960 therewasa militarycoup.Thesenewgovernments werecivilians,butthemilitaryawesthemostorganisedclassbuiltbycolonialism. ColonialismgavetwoimportantcontributionstoAfrica.Onewasinfrastructure,madetoextract resourcesratherthantodevelopthesociety.Theotherwasthemilitary.Whentheywerecolonising Africa,theywouldrecruitsoldiersfromtheirAfricancoloniesandusethemtocoloniseacrossthe continent.Theyalsousedthemintheirownwar,with1millioninWWIand2 millioninWWII.The militaryclasswasverystrong,anda productof colonialism.Duringtheprocessofindependence,they werenotconsideredtobepartofthesystem,sincetheyweremakingciviliangovernments.Whenever thecivilianleaderswouldfail,themilitarywouldcomeinandpeoplesupportedthat.Mostnations becameindependentinthe1960s,and by 1970 mostof themweremilitarystates.Civiliangovernment hadjustfailed. In1958, the militaryleaderGeneralIbrahimAboudtookoverSudan.Ingeneral,thesemilitaryleaders wereorganisedanddisciplined,brutcorruptanduneducated.Themilitarybuiltsingle-partystates,and becamedictatorial,ofteninsimilarwaystotheEasternEuropeans.Theywouldclaimsocialismor Marxism.Thiswasthefirstcoupin Africa.Aboudwasnotradical,however,hewasconservative.Most Arableaderswantedtochangetheirsocieties,buthedidnot.Also,heneveraddressedtheissueofthe south.Hemadeseveralmistakesthatledtounrest. Whenthesouthstartedtocreatetheirown movement,hestartedclosingmissionaryschoolsinthe south,inanattemptto Islamisethem.Heattackedtheireducatedelite,tryingtoArabiseandIslamise thesouth,whichmadethemovementsevenmoreaggressive. Hecalledfora round-tableconferencetoresolvetheissues,butthatdidn'tworkout.Hismilitaryrule failedfortworeasons.First,hewashavingissueswithreligiousgroups,andsecondlyhedidnothing aboutthesouth.In1969 therewasanothercoup whichhada majorimpact.Young officerstookover, similartomanyothercoups.Theheadof thisrevolutionwasNimeiri.In1969therewerethreemajor revolutionsinAfrica.OnewasinSomalia,whichlasteduntilthedisintegrationoftheSomalistate. AnotherwasGaddafiofLibya,andthethirdwas thisone. Duringthisperiod,nationalistsexpectedthingstochange,peoplewouldbefreeandwouldgetjobsand woulddevelop.Leadersmadealotofpromises,butcouldn'tgothroughwithitso themilitarytookover. Peoplecelebratedthisbecauseitwasseenasapathto order. SudanunderNimeiri: SoNimeiritookoverSudanin1969. He was radical,withslogansofcreatingliberaldemocracy.He createdtheRevolutionaryCommandCouncil,lookingforextensivecontroloftheeconomy.Inthe 1970s, he triedtocontrolallthe religiousmovementsandjailedtheirleaders,gettingridofthe conservativeelements.Sudanalsohadamajorcommunistparty.Thereweretwotrendswhenhetook power:thetraditionalistgroups,andtheleftists,suchasthecommunistpartyandthetradeunions.He gotridof bothof theseandstartedto buildhisownpersonalrule. In1971, he launchedamajorattack on the Communistelements,consolidatingpowerforhimself.The Communistsinthelate1970s gotrid of himand brieflytookover,buthecamebackand tookpower again.Hecameout to negotiatewiththesouthaftergettingridofhisenemies,in1972.Hecalledfora conferencetobeheldinAddisAbaba,calledtheAddisAbabaAgreementof1972.In thisagreement, Nimeiriandthesouthagreedthatthesouthwouldhaveinternalautonomy,beingpartofSudanbut electingtheirowngovernmentandrulingthemselves.Hecreatedapartyforthem,theSudanSocialist UnionParty. HewantedtomakeSudaninto"thebread basketoftheArab world"usingthesouth,arichlyagricultural area.Healsobuilta majorcanal thereto providewatertothenorthand to Egypt. Hehad hisown intentionsinthenegotiations,ofcourse.Eventhough70%ofthepopulationwasinthenorth,the richestagriculturalareasandtheoilwereintheSouth.Theoilhadjustbeendiscoveredatthetimeof theagreementandAmericanoilcompanies,specificallyChevron,alsowantedtoexploitit. Threethingswereaddressedatthenegotiations.SouthernSudanwouldhaveitsowninternal autonomy,andwouldbepartyoftheSocialistSudanParty.Inthelater1970s, Nimeiriwasnotfavoured bytheNorth,sincehe'djailedmostoftheirleaders.Hetriedtomakeamajorconferenceofnational reconciliation.Hetriedtoaccommodatetheseleaders. The1980s: TheMuslimBrotherhood(MB)isveryimportanttothehistoryofSudan.Hassan al-Turabiwastheleader oftheparty,a veryreligiousfundamentalist.HewasalsopartoftheUmma party. In1983, the AddisAbabaAgreementwiththesouthhadbeenmanipulatedbyNimeiri,whotriedto restructureitandputhispeopleinpower.Anewmovementemerged,calledtheSudanPeople's LiberationArmy,orSPLA,headedbyJohnGarang.Theywantedtosecede,becausetheiroilwasbeing takenbyChevron,andtheywereunderthecontrolofthenorth.Theybegancarryingout attacks. By1985, Nimeiriwasremovedfrompower,andpowershiftedtoamoreradicalgroup.TheMB would eventuallytakeover.Hislastingimpactwashisuseofforcetocontrolthenation,andhisjailingof opposingleadersuntilthereconciliation.Hewasunabletoresolvetheissueofthesouth.He accommodatedtheMBin thereconciliationandtheybecameverypowerful. Justbeforehelostpower,theMBforcedNimieritointroduceSharialaws.Thecountrywasn't exclusivelyIslamic,buttheMBwantedtoinstitutethisreligiousformoflawintotheconstitution, forcingtheSouthintoit.FortheMB, thereligiousleaderismoreimportantthanthestateleader.The SPLAbecamea much moreradicalmovement,andtheycalledforanotherconferencein1988.By 1989, anewmilitarygrouptookover,underBashir,thecurrentpresident,muchmoreMB-oriented.TheSPLA didn'treallywanttosecede,butbecauseoftheinstitutionofSharialawsandtheNorthnotlisteningto them,theyhadtotry to leave. OncetalkshadgonethroughwithlettingtheSouthgainautonomy,Darfurcameforwardwantingtobe treatedthesame.TheChineseobjectedthattheSecurityCouncilwouldpassnolegislationonthat, becausetheyhadavestedinterestinit. Ethiopia--HaileSelassie: HaileSelassiewasaveryimportantEthiopianleader.HisfatherwasthegovernororHarar, an early Islamiccityintheregion.BeforeSelassiebecameking,Menelikwastheleader.Menelikhadnochildren, andwasrelatedtoHaileSelassie'sgrandmother.HaileSelassiewasveryyoung,andaregentkeptthe throneforhimintheearlyyearsofhis life.Heruledinthe1930s whenItalyinvadedandtookoverfora fewyears.TheItaliansalsowantedtocoloniseBritishSomalilandandtheGermanswantedEgypt,sothe BritishandFrenchwenttowarwiththem,takingoverthewholeregionandgivingEthiopiabackits independence.TheyalsogaveEretriatoEthiopia,becausetheydidn'twantMuslimscontrollingaccess totheRedSea.The movementsinEretriaweredivided,somesayingtheyshouldbewithEthiopiaand somesayingtheyshouldbeindependent,withotherscallingforaconfederacy.In1960, HaileSelassie integratedthemintoEthiopia. HaileSelassiecamebackaftertheItalianoccupationendedandruleduntil1974.Hewantedto moderniseEthiopia,butbykeepingtheroyalline.MenelikandHaileSelassiehadcreatedland-owning classes.Hewantedtomoderniseincertainwaysbutkeeptheroyalfamilyandtraditionalclassesand thetraditionalchurchasitas. He wantedtomodernisethearmy,though. HecourtedtheAmericans,becausehewantedaidanddidn'ttrusttheFrenchorBritish.Hetriedto bringcommercialagriculture,openinggoodstobesenttotheUS. He wouldsendthingslikecoffeeto theoutsidefortrade.Thisisolatedthepeoplewhousedtoownland,withEthiopiagettingmoneyfrom internationalcapitalism. MenelikandSelassieexpandedtheEthiopianstateandcolonisedthesurroundingareas.Landlords madepeopleworkandwerepaid,andbecameveryrichwhiletheworkersbecamemuchpoorer.He wasnottryingto builda democraticstate,buta controlledtraditionalsystem. Therewasa significantresponsefromEthiopiangroups.TherewasamilitarycoupfromtheEthiopian royalguardbut hetookcare of that.He wantedto balancetheoldstructuresofchurch andlandlords owningland,butalsowantedtomoderniseandopencertaindoorsofagriculturetotradecoffeeto America.By1960, peoplewereunhappyandthefirstcouphappened.Hegotridofthat. Afterthefailedcoup,studentsstartedtoriseup.EducatedeliteweregoingtoEuropeandcomingback, havingseenhowdevelopededucationwaseverywhereelse.Theintellectualelitewerecomingbackto Ethiopiaandwerecriticalofthesystem,sayingitwasn'treformitwasaboutcentralisingpowerand keepingtraditionalstructures.Andchangeswerecosmetic.Then,Ethiopiabegantoexpandeducation. Studentswouldspendayearteachingintheinterior,andtheysawthepovertyinsomeareas.Theysaw thatitwas wrongand decidedtheyhadtodo something. Intermittentpeasantrevoltsbecamemorefrequent,buttheywererepressedquickly.Innorthern Ethiopia,theTigreareas,peoplewerealsogettingpoorer.Peoplewereusingthelandtoofrequently andtopsoilwaslosingnutrients,soitwashardertogrowfood.Peoplewerelookingforotherwaysout thancapitalism,becauseitcreatedclassdistinctionsandseparationofwealth. Inthe1970s, studentmovements,peasantuprisingsandfamineinTigreareaswereallmajorissues. Eritreanswerealsoorganisingthemselves,wantingindependence.Itallcametoa headfollowingan armyrebellionin1974.HaileSelassiewasabletoquellthis.Oneofthemeninchargeoftherevoltwas armyrebellionin1974.HaileSelassiewasabletoquellthis.Oneofthemeninchargeoftherevoltwas hispersonalbodyguard,butitfailed. EthiopiaafterHaile Selassie: Thearmycreateda committeecalledtheDergue,whichwouldtakeoverpowerfromHaileSelassie, jailinghim.Theyeventuallydeposedanddetainedhim,andhediedayearlater.Afterthis,amilitary governmenttookpowerin1974.Ethiopiahad alwaysbeenpro-West,butwiththistheexperienceda shifttotheEast.Initially,GeneralAmanAndom,arespectedgeneral,wasgivenpower.Hewasfrom Eritreabutveryintegrated.Whilehewasholdingameeting,ajuniorcolonelnamedMengistuHaile Mariankilledeveryoneandtookpower.Hewaspro-Soviet,andbecamepartoftheEasternBlocin 1977. TheSovietslovedthisbecausetheywantedtoturnthefeudalstateintoasocialiststate.Heruled until1990. AfterthefalloftheSovietUnionin1989, Mengistuhad nomore allies.HenegotiatedwiththeWest, whoallowedhimtogotoliveinZimbabweifheleftpeacefully.Allthenationalistmovementsin EthiopiawerecalledtoaconferenceinBritaintodiscusswhowouldleadthecountry.InLondon,they choseanewparty andreturnedto Ethiopia. GeneralAndomwasaveryAmharisedperson,andhisdeathledtoaleftmove.Thenewmilitary leadershipwassupportedinthisbyitsrevolutionaryallies,thestudentmovementsandthepeasants.In 1977, HaileMarianbecamea ruthlessleader,andcreatedaone-partystate.Hecrateda party calledthe Workers'party. In1977 therewasa warbetweenEthiopiaandSomalia,inwhichtheAmericanswerehelpingEthiopia andtheUSSR werehelpingSomalia.Mengistuwassocialist,sotheRussiansshiftedtheirallianceto EthiopiaandtheAmericansthenshiftedtoSomalia.

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Chapter 3, Problem 8E is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 8E from chapter: 3 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/03/17, 07:58AM. The answer to “?Nitrogen monoxide and oxygen react to form nitrogen dioxide. Consider the mixture of NO and O2 shown in the accompanying diagram. The blue spheres represent N, and the red ones represent O. (a) Draw a representation of the product mixture, assuming that the reaction goes to completion. What is the limiting reactant in this case? (b) How many NO2 molecules would you draw as products if the reaction had a percent yield of 75%? [Section 3.7” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 76 words. Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. Since the solution to 8E from 3 chapter was answered, more than 399 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: nitrogen, represent, reaction, mixture, draw. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 49 chapters, and 5471 solutions.

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Visualizing ConceptsNitrogen monoxide and oxygen react to