a) What scientific principle or law is used in the process of balancing chemical equations?
(b)In balancing equations, why should you not change subscripts in chemical formulas?
(c) How would you write out liquid water, water vapor, aqueous sodium chloride, and solid sodium chloride in chemical equations?
Geography 101: --------------------------------------------------- Week 1 of notes 2/3/16 February 3, 2016 1. Physical Geography There are many different forms of Geography. Examples are Meteorology, Bio- Geology, Geomorphology, and Oceanography. Meteorology is… The Science of weather Climatology is… The Science of climate Bio-Geography is… The Study of landforms Oceanography is… The Study of the world’s ocean 2. Cultural (Human) Geography Regional Geographic’s Medical Geography is… The Geography of Disease and how they are dispersed among the population Economic Geography is… The study of the distribution of crime Geography of the aged is… (Basically) The study of the elderly and life from their perspective 3. Cartography The Science of maps, and the process of creating them 4. G. I. S. G. I. S. is an acronym for Geographic Information Systems which is… The geographic mapping of maps. (Ex. GPS Systems, Google Maps) ! Need to Know! William Morris Davis is.. The Father of American Geography. He also founded the A.A.G which is an acronym for Association of American Geographers. ---------------------------------------------------- 2/5/16 February 5, 2016 *Information for the 1 Quiz begins here. I will upload a study guide before the quiz which is on 2/12 * What is Latitude Latitude is defined as the lines that are East/West, and they determine North/South locations - Each line of latitude is parallel to the next line of latitude. These lines are sometimes called parallels, and they are valued in degrees - The maximum amount of degrees for latitude is 90 What is the Equator The equator divides the world into (2) hemispheres What is Longitude Longitude is defined as the North/South lines, which determine East/West locations - The lines are not parallel to each other, they converge at the poles - Unlike Latitude, longitude goes up to 180 degrees These are sometimes referred to as meridians. Which leads us into…… Prime Meridian Which goes through the center of earth at 0 degrees. In 1884 the Meridional Conference took place in hopes to establish a singular line of longitude which everyone would recognize. - At this conference it was decided that the line of longitude would pass through the Royal Observatory Greenwich Meridian, also known as the Prime Meridian. This line was chosen since much of the world was already using the line. ! Need to Know! Whenever writing coordinates latitude must come first. Tropic of Cancer 23.50 degrees (N) (Do not round up) - The Tropic of Cancer represents the northern most point on earth that experiences direct rays from the sun. Tropic of Capricorn Exact same degrees as the tropic of cancer EXCEPT the direction has changed from North to South 23.50 degrees (S) (D0 not round up) - The Tropic of Capricorn represents the southernmost point on earth which experiences direct rays from the sun. The Tropics The area between Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn - This area receives the direct rays of the sun 2x a year Now onto regions which are completely different…. The Artic Arctic Circle 66.5 degrees (N) The Arctic Circle is the farthest point from the North Pole in the northern hemisphere. ! Need to Know! At least 1 day when the sun does not rise and at least 1 day where the sun does not rise and at least one day where the sun does not set. (Ex. Alaska) Antarctic Circle 66.5 degrees (S) The Antarctic Circle is the farthest point from the South Pole in the southern hemisphere. ! Need to Know! The temperature never goes above 0 degrees, it will always be below even during the summer. End of Week 1 notes. I hope that they were helpful to you. Notes will be uploaded weekly, so be sure to come back again! - Jensine Geography 101: Notes taken, interpreted, and formatted by: Jensine Bonner Week 2 of Notes (2/8-2/10/16) 2/ 8/16 There are (3) different ways to express degrees: 1. Fraction form: 20 ½ (degrees) N, 77 ½ (degrees) E 2. Decimal form: 20.5 (degrees) N, 75.5 (degrees) E 3. Time: 40 (degree symbol) 30’, 30 (degree symbol) 30’ - In this case the 30’ represents 30 minutes-half The International Dateline is…. - The line that marks the point where each day ends and a new day begins. - The line can be found in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, but it does not correspond with the 180 degree line that is there for political reasons. World Time Zones 50 time zones, each 15 latitudinal wide - When time zones were created, they were created so that they would accommodate each respective state/county that it would pass through Day Light Savings Time Originally created with farmers in mind so that farmers could have elongated hours to harvest their land ! Fun Fact! Arizona and Hawaii do not follow Day Light Savings Time. However, Native American reservations in Arizona do follow Day Light Savings. Directional Systems While there are many directional systems, Mariner’s Compass is one that is most common, as well as one that is most often used. Azimuthal System This system is used in Aviation Maps & Map Scales A cartographer often uses (3) methods of scale representation Definition: Scale representation of all or a portion of earth’s surface Map scale (definition): The index of the area that is being mapped 1. Graphic Scale 2. Stated Inch Scale 3. Representative Fraction - For this method, the units of measurement have to be the same- the same on both sides of the fraction ! Fun Fact! In the legend, it is common to see all (3) of these scales of representation of a map. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2/10/16 (Maps continued) 1. Large Scale Maps 2. Small Scale Maps - Show a lot of area- little detail (Ex. World Map) (3) Basic types of Maps - Planimetric shows… 2D information only, and it has no reference to altitude since it is not needed for this type of map (Ex. A Road map) An outline map is also considered a planimetric ma- all maps begin with a planimetric base - Thematic shows…. A theme or topic, and it can be considered best in presenting geological information (Ex. Maps that are color coordinated, with a legend that correspond to the color) - Topographic shows… 3D information, and altitudes, and it stems from topography. There are many ways to show 3D information 1. Raised relief 2. Colors 3. Contour lines (this is seen as the best way to portray altitude) Isoline A large farm of lines that connect point of equal value th - On topographic maps, values are only shown every 5 line Map Projections Surface features can be depicted in many ways, but one popular method is through projection. The surface features are projected onto the map surface, and the features are recorded. - However, there will always be some degree of distortion - Large area- great distortion - Small area- less distortion Polar Projection Makes some places appear to be larger than they actually are - Specifically the polar regions Goode’s projection This projection is very oddly shaped, but designed to project things in a specific way ! Important to know! In the 15000s Gerardus Mercator developed one of the 1 World Mapst End of Week 2 notes. I hope that they were helpful to you. Notes will be uploaded weekly, so be sure to come back again! Up Next: A study guide for the upcoming quiz. - Jensine Geography 101 Notes taken, interpreted, and formatted by: Jensine Bonner Week 3: The Universe 2/15/16 No School (Snow Day) 2/17/16 Cosmology is… The study of the universe Astronomy is… The study of space Speed of Light - Travels 186,000 miles per second The Light Year - Can be described as the distance that light will travel in a year’s time which is 6,000,000,000,000 miles *This is a measure of distance, and not a measure of time* There are many theories which suggest ideas to how the world came to be. One of the most famous, and most recognized is The Big Bang Theory - Said to have occurred between 13.6-14.0 billion years ago How Big is the Universe - The distance is measured by comparing the edge of the known (visible) universe, and it’s estimated to be 14 billion light years away Leaving Earth - One tool that scientists use to investigate space is, the Hubble Space Telescope which provides the scientists with a clear image of space. - The Hubble is a reflective telescope, and it orbits above Earth’s atmosphere A Galaxy is - An organized group of stars Andromeda Galaxy - Is said to be 2 million light years away, and it contains 200+ billion stars Deep Field Project - For this project, kept open for 10 days to capture light, and the Hubble Space Telescope captured a photo, and everything in the photo were galaxies, and it revealed over 3,000 galaxies Black Hole - Thought to exist at the center of the galaxy, but it’s when stars converge, it’s not an actual hole. - When stars converge their light is lost Nebula - Is a collection of dust and gas, and from this dust and gas, new stars and even planets are born 2/19/16 Formation of Planets From the nebula Planets Terrestrial Planets - Are generally small in size, dense, of rocky composition, and contain few moons - Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars Jovian Planets - Are generally large in size, gaseous, not dense, contain many moons, and have ring systems - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune The Solar System - Mercury- Closest to the sun therefore, no life can exist on it - Venus- Shrouded in thick dense clouds, and has a heightened greenhouse effect-> 900 degrees on this planet - Mars- Life could possibly exist on this planet, since it along with Earth are in a comfortable zone - Jupiter-It contains the famous red spot which is a gigantic storm and it has a very dense atmosphere - Saturn- Famous for its rings - Uranus & Neptune- Known for being blue planets - Pluto-Icy & small (dwarf planet) Dwarf Planet - Pluto is one of the dwarf planets, and it has (5) moons. - There are suspected to be many more dwarf planets out there End of Week 3 notes. I hope that they were helpful to you. Notes will be uploaded weekly, so be sure to come back again! Up Next: Week 4 Notes - Jensine Geography 101 Notes taken, interpreted, and formatted by: Jensine Bonner Week 4: The Universe (cont.) 2/22/16 Asteroids Orbiting chunks of rock (These chunks of rock can even be found orbiting between Mars and Jupiter) IDA & Dactyl IDA is a 31 mile asteroid and Dactyl is a moon that is orbiting around IDA Comets A comet is not comprised of rock, but is mostly made up of ice, and it contains dust and other debris as well. (In its orbit, it travels near and far from the sun) Meteor They are very bright like stars, but can be compared to asteroids in that they are in similar size - When a meteor strikes the Earth, it is then called a meteorite Meteor Shower Occurs when the Earth passes through a trail that is left behind by a comet Earth’s atmosphere - The atmosphere is balanced by gas pressure and gravity - 99% of the Earth’s mass lies within 50 miles of the surface Composition of the Atmosphere - Part of the Earth’s atmosphere is balanced by gases, and some of the primary gases are… Nitrogen (N2) 78% Oxygen (O2) 21% Argon (Ar) 1% Long term variable gases Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Important greenhouse gas, needed by plants, and an essential component of the carbon cycle Ozone(O3) Blocks UV radiation and is an irritant Trace gases Radon, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, helium, methane Short term variable gases Water Vapor (H2O) Essential to the water cycle, and also an important greenhouse gas Particulates (Dust) Also essential to the water cycle and cooling effect in the atmosphere temperatures 2/24/16 (cont.) Levels of the Atmosphere Thermosphere-> Mesopause-> Mesosphere-> Stratopause-> Stratosphere (ozone)- > Tropopause-> Trophosphere *Based on the temporal structures* *The Thermosphere is a combination of the Exosphere and Ionosphere 2/26/16 Satellites Movements of the Earth in Space Rotation How Earth spins around its axis Axis- An imaginary line that passes through the center of the Earth and intersects the surface at its poles Period & Speed of rotation Period- 24 hours (1 day) Speed- Varies w/latitude Fastest at the equator- 1040 mph Speed decreases w/increasing latitudes at the poles- 0 mph *counter-clockwise rotation of the Earth* * 2 planets-> retrograde (backwards – Venus and Jupiter (clockwise) ) Revolution How the Earth moves in its orbit around the Sun *The orbit is elliptical* Perihelion (Jan. 3), and Aphelion (Jul. 4) 91,500,000mi -> 93,000,000mi