(a) When the metallic element sodium combines with the nonmetallic element bromine, Br2(l), how can you determine the chemical formula of the product? How do you know whether the product is a solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature? Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
(b) When a hydrocarbon burns in air, what reactant besides the hydrocarbon is involved in the reaction? What products are formed? Write a balanced chemical equation for the combustion of benzene, C6H6(l), in air.
ANTH 1003 Dr. Susan Johnston Class Notes for March 23 The Upper Paleolithic Time of anatomically modern humans One of the first examples of an Upper Paleolithic site found at Cro Magnon, France (not the earliest dated site) Took place at the end of the Pleistocene (Ice Age), which lasted 1.8 mya – 10,000 BP o Paleolithic is an archaeological time period, Pleistocene is a geological time period o Much colder than it is today o There were fluctuations that caused changes in the environment o Maximum glacial extent caused much of Europe and North America to be covered by ice, which pushed populations of people closer together Upper Paleolithic stone tool industry: o Beginning of true archaeological cultures, increasing regionalism (groups and styles of tools go together with certain times and places) o Humans of the Upper Paleolithic make specific kinds of tools that are limited in time and space --> more analogous to modern cultures o Introduction of blade technology, more efficient way to use resources and make tools o Non-stone tools appear; made of ivory, bone, and sometimes wood Major changes in stone tools: o Started as cores with no real shape --> handaxes --> shift to flake tools --> increasingly intentional tool types limited in time and space and made from different materials o Cognitive change was happening (intentional tool types indicate more planning) o Why Increasing complexity of activities and mental connection between a specific task and a specific tool type Biology: different brain structures enable and prompt modern humans to think about the world differently and therefore behave differently The “material explosion” could just be because of preservation, especially wood, which was used before but just didn’t preserve at sites before the Upper Paleolithic Upper Paleolithic Life Hunter-gatherer lifestyle o Tend to be mobile to exploit resources that are seasonal (plants) or moving (animals) Very knowledgeable about the environment o Tend to be egalitarian: no institutionalized positions of power Social influence based more on age, experience, etc. o Relatively low population density makes it easier to move around o Examples: Hundreds of plant species recovered at El Juyo, Portugal (c. 14,000 BP) indicates varied plant diet Extensive use of coastal resources and hunting of baby seals, elands, buffalo, and bushpigs at Nelson Bay Cave, South Africa (19,000 – 12,000 BP) Hunting strategies used a considerable amount of thought o Seasonal hunting: being at a certain place at a particular time of year to take advantage of game that is predictably available then Verberie, France (18,000 – 11,000 BP): both sexes and all ages of faunal remains of reindeer found suggests that people preyed on entire herds, available in August o Encounter hunting: taking what you can get from encounters with small groups of animals Le Flagolet, France (18,000 – 11,000 BP): primarily adult female reindeer remains found, which are in peak condition in winter as they prepare for spring pregnancies and live in small groups o Mass hunting strategies: herding animals together so many can be killed at one time Stellmoor, Germany (11,000 BP): tons of arrowheads and faunal remains found in an extinct lakebed First structures in the archaeological record come from the Upper Paleolithic o Earliest site with structures: Ohalo, Israel has huts and hearths o Mezhirich, Ukraine (15,000 BP): structures made out of mammoth bones specifically stacked together Symbolic behavior explodes, much of it is portable art including figurines of fat women Formal burial becomes more common o Over 100 known burials, versus around 30 for Neanderthals o Burial was the norm in some places o Goat’s Hole Cave, Paviland (Wales) c. 28,000 – 30,000 BP: “red lady” was actually a male burial, covered in red ochre o Sungir, Russia (c. 28,000 – 20,000 BP): hundreds of ivory beads, possibly sewn into clothing, found in burial of adult male and two children o Dolni Vestonice (Czech Republich) c. 27,000 – 26,000 BP: one burial includes a woman between two men; woman suffers from numerous pathologies, both trauma-related and congenital, and may be related to the two men based on similar unusual dental traits Upper Paleolithic Recap: All modern humans Tools – more, more varied materials, blade technology Hunting First evidence of structures Consistent evidence of burial Lots of symbolic repesentations General changes throughout the Paleolithic: Biological: began with Australopithecines in the Lower Paleolithic --> genus Homo --> Neanderthals --> modern humans only after c. 40,000 BP Earliest tools were simply expedient cutting edges --> more tool types, more complex technology and assemblages Living sites: accumulations of stone and bones --> structures emerge in the Upper Paleolithic Slow emergence of ritual: Maybe Dinaledi (Lower Paleolithic), more common in the Middle Paleolithic, explodes in Upper Paleolithic with anatomically modern humans