A car travels 28 mi per gallon of gasoline. How many kilometers per liter will it go?
4/4-4/8/2016 Islamic Near East History Week 8 - Chaim Weizman (1874-1952): warmed up Western elites to the idea of a Jewish movement to Palestine, a place that could be a national home for the Jews. • Led to Balfour Declaration with the clause that natural inhabitants of Palestine are not to be affected negatively by the Jewish movement. • Kept the momentum of Zionism going under a British mandate. - Herber Samuel: High commissioner of Palestine (Jewish). - Ben-Gurion: Israeli prime minister from Poland. • Records show that he encouraged pushing as many Arabs out of Palestine as possible - Egypt • Muslim Brotherhood resists the Western habits of the Egyptian elite. - Islam becomes ideology of resistance. The brotherhood starts killing important ofﬁcials and the regime banned the brotherhood. The leader of the brotherhood was also assassinated allegedly by the regime. • 1936 Treaty with the British was revised, but the British still kept control of the Suez Canal. • January 29, 1952, Black Monday: Mob violence against Western symbols (hotels, liquor stores, clothing stores). - Followed by a coup in July 1952 in which two mid-level ofﬁcers came to power: Nasser and Mohammad Nagub. They called their coup the “free ofﬁcers.” They were unhappy about the imperial circumstances and the tendency of the elite to prolong relations with Westerners. They were also appalled by the lack of national identity. • Nasser: Pan-Arab rhetoric, charismatic, a populist. - The Muslim Brothers initially hailed his coup, but Nasser’s secularization (social justice not religion) prompted attempted assassination. Nasser banned the Brotherhood again and it went underground. 1 4/4-4/8/2016 - He engaged in land reform and set the maximum land holdings that people could control. - He established a progressive constitution. - Made agreement with the British that the British would leave the Suez and Egypt, but the British still maintained the right to intervene if necessary. - Early 50s-60s, the USA liked Nasser because he was progressive and a revolutionary. He didn’t seem threatening because he wasn’t looking to link with Russia. - Nasser refused to participate in Baghdad pact in 1955. He was pressured to be a part of the pact. - He asked to be allowed to purchase arms, but USA refused because of his anti- Israel rhetoric. He bought arms from Russia by way of Czechoslovakia. - Built a damb to generate electricity from the Nile (cost was around $20 billion today) for which he sought aid from Russia. He also nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956. - British, French, and Israelis created an alliance. Israel was to bomb the Suez so the British could move in due to the treaty signed with Egypt. Many lives were lost and USA intervened, upset they were not informed of the alliance. Nasser was seen as triumphant. - Nasser formed the United Arab Republic in February 1958 with Syria. The Republic broke quickly due to problems between the two countries such as culture, economy, environment, and dialect. Distance also played a factor in its unsuccessfulness. - June 1967, Israelis struck and wiped out the air forces of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria within hours. Major blow to the Arab identity that a weak, infant nation of Jews could demolish them all so quickly. - Sayyid Qutb (1906-66): More radical that the Muslim Brotherhood. He argued that violence was permissible. His ideas conﬂicted with Nasser and Nasser had him imprisoned where Qutb established a following of likeminded individuals. 2