A target effector, such as the heart, receives input from the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. What is the actual difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions at the level of those connections (i.e., at the synapse)?
Chapter 2: Section 5 Brain Damage, Plasticity, and Repair Brain Damage: injury to the brain that impairs its functions, especially permanently. Effects of brain damage include: Paralysis Sensory loss Memory loss Personality deterioration Plasticity: the adaptability of an organism to changes in its environment or differences between its various habitats. There are three methods to repair a damaged brain: Collateral sprouting: when “the axons of some healthy neurons adjacent to damaged cells grow new branches.” (Experience Psychology 73) Substitution of function: when a “damaged region’s functions is taken over by another area or areas of the brain.” (Experience Psychology 73) Neurogenesis: when new neurons are generated. Brain Tissue Implants: the brain has the capacity to heal bad wounds, but sometimes the brain needs help. That is where brain grafts come in. Brain grafts are healthy pieces of brain that replace dead ones. Studies are being conducted in which brain grafts are being given to people with brain damage in order to heal its affects. In some cases, people donate stem cells that are used to grow new parts of the brain in order to potentially heal cases of brain damage. Stem Cells are unique primitive cells that have the capacity to develop into most types of human cells.