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A 26.00-g sample of water containing tritium, 31 H, emits

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward ISBN: 9780321696724 27

Solution for problem 80AE Chapter 21

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

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Problem 80AE

Problem 80AE

A 26.00-g sample of water containing tritium, 31 H, emits 1.50 × 103 beta particles per second. Tritium is a weak beta emitter with a half-life of 12.3 yr. What fraction of all the hydrogen in the water sample is tritium?

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Answer Key Test 3 Bio 100 Chapter 13: 1. The theory of evolution and natural selection 2. Layers of sedimentary; layers determine how old a fossil is 3. The fossils and dates of when the organisms lived 4. Homology= likeness between different species 5. Human humerus bone cats humerus bone 6. Same bones that are possibly shaped and sized differently and they function differently in the two organisms being compared 7. Vestigial structures: parts in an organism that don’t have a function how but used to have a job in their ancestors 8. Picking and choosing which genes are present in domesticated plants/animals offspring 9. True 10. Traits being passes from parent to offspring 11. Natural selection: Species create too many offspring for the resources available which causes competition for survival. Those who win that competition have babies and pass their traits on while those who lost die before creating offspring with their traits. 12. False: Populations evolve not individuals 13. Prokaryotes 14. Crossing over, independent assortment, and random fertilization 15. Organisms in the same species that all live in the same habitat that mate with each other 16. All the genes within a population; has all alleles in the current population 17. A change in the gene pool 18. The amount of each variation of a trait in a population 19. p + 2pq+ q = 1 p= how often the homozygous dominants show up pq= how often the heterozygous dominant shows up q= how often the homologous 20. the change in the amount of each allele is present in a small population 21. Bottleneck: sudden extreme declines in populations Founder: when a small group from a large population moves to a new habitat (the small population that leaves will not have the same amount of alleles present in their gene pool compared to the one in the large population they left) 22. The change in the gene pool when fertile organisms join or leave a population (causes less diversity between genes in other populations 23. False; natural selection is NOT random 24. The genes from an individual in a gene pool compared to other genes given to the same gene pool by another individual 25. Stabilizing selection, directional selection, and disruptive selection Stabilizing selection: gets rid of the extremes; reduces variation in a population (mouse example: got rid of super light and dark mice) Directional selection: gets rid of one extreme; happens a lot in specific habitats that animals need camouflage; happens when the environment is changing (Example: the light mice are gone while the dark and medium colored mice are still present) Disruptive Selection: get rid of the “normal” phenotype; 2 extremes are favored (ex: the medium colored mouse is taken away while the light and dark colored mice are favored) 26. It is like natural selection for mating… some organisms have more desirable traits so they are more likely to gain a mate 27. The differences between a male and a female’s appearance in a species (ex: often times males are larger than females) Example: a male peacock has colorful feathers while the female does not 28. Competition with the same sex to “win” a mate (this can be physical fighting, dancing, ect) 29. When an organism (usually a female) chooses a mate due to appearance or behavior (example: peacock with the most colorful feathers usually finds a mate) 30. Often times these showy feathers or other assets attract not only mates but predators. The species don’t evolve because the colorful feathers also attract mates which obviously results in more animals with the colorful feathers or whatever quality it may be 31. Having diploid cells helps adaption organisms continue to have variation. Any heterozygous alleles have a recessive trait that is hidden by the dominant phenotype. Often times the recessive allele isn’t the best for a specific environment but if the environment changes the recessive gene could be more advantageous. Hence why it is good to keep this recessive allele in the gene pool. 32. When natural selection keeps more than one phenotype allele present equally in a population. 33. When organisms with heterozygous alleles produce more than those with homozygous alleles within a population 34. Keeps 2 phenotypes in a population as equal as possible… the organisms with the lesser phenotype have the advantage though 35. False; evolution doesn’t create or destroy body parts, it uses what is already present. 36. Changes in traits between generations 37. When 1 species splits and creates 2 or more new species (still has many of the same characteristics) 38. Multiple populations that have the ability to mate with one another and produce fertile offspring 39. Attempts to prevent gene flow and keeps species from interacting 40. When two 2 species breed with on another their offspring is called a hybrid 41. 2 problems: a. How do we know if animals who we only have fossils of could interbreed b. Cannot describe any species who asexually reproduce 42. Doesn’t have to do with reproduction; uses shape, size, and other phenotypic features to determine species; used for sexual, asexual, fossils, ect. 43. All subjective (due to phenotypic features) so one’s opinion may not align with someone else’s 44. Sorted by ecological niches/roles within a specific habitat 45. A group that shares a common ancestor, they make their own branch on the tree of life 46. Prevention of mating between different species 47. Occurs after fertilization of a hybrid has already happened 48. Habitat: living in different habitats doesn’t allow for breeding Temporal: mating happens at different seasons of the year Behavioral: different mating rituals; cannot attract another species due to that Mechanical: the reproductive parts do not work together Gametes: the eggs and sperm do not work together 49. Reduced Hybrid viability: do not have the proper genes to survive long enough to reproduce Reduced hybrid fertility: they are able to survive perfectly but are unable to reproduce Hybrid breakdown: the original hybrids are viable and can reproduce but their offspring aren’t able to survive and reproduce 50. Allopatric speciation: also known as geographic speciation… occurs when a species is split due to a geographic barrier and a new species is formed 51. Ex: mountain ranges or islands 52. Depends on the animal’s ability to move (ex: a rodent may see a mountain range as a barrier whereas a mountain lion would not) 53. If one species is split into 2 habitats their food sources will differ, eventually they will begin to digest those foods easier as a population. If the 2 groups are brought back together they are more likely to mate with ones with the same food source and digestive abilities. 54. Sympatric speciation: when a new species is created in the same place as its “parent” species (usually happens when gene flow between the populations are decreased) 55. They have unique climates and environments so the organisms living on the island have to adapt to these environments often time creating new species. 56. Evolution of species from 1 common ancestor 57. Places, where different species meet and mate, producing a hybrid offspring 58. 3 steps: a. A few populations have similar gene pools b. The populations are separated and adapt and change over time c. Later the species meet up again in a hybrid zone 59. 3 outcomes: a. reinforcement: when the hybrid off springs aren’t equipped to survive the reproductive barriers may be reinforced in order to prevent more inadequate hybrids to be created b. Fusion: when the 2 species gene pools pretty much go back to being one (reverse speciation) (could be positive or negative) c. Stability: hybrids are produced… allows for some gene pool sharing but still have 2 species 60. A time in which a fossil doesn’t show evolution that are interrupted by periods of change. 61. Life: a. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules (Ex: nucleotides) b. Molecules attached creating polymers (ex: proteins) c. When they joined the makeup of these droplets containing a membrane was different than anything else on Earth d. This created an organism that could self-replicate lead to inheritance of genes 62. True 63. RNA replication a. RNA monomers attach to clay b. Randomly monomers join to create a gene c. Then a complementary RNA strand is created 64. Patterns of changes on Earth 65. 4 eons: a. Hadean (4.6  4 billion years ago) b. Archean (4 2.5 billion years ago) c. Proterozoic (2.5.5 billion years ago) d. Phanerozoic (.5 billion years ago present) 66. On earth by themselves for 3.52 billion years ago a. Photosynthetic prokaryotes i. Created an abundance of oxygen ii. Most prokaryotes cannot live with oxygen (oxygen=poison) so many kinds went extinct iii. Eventually, cellular respiration was evolutionized allowing some prokaryotes to live in oxygen 67. 1.8 billion years ago, single-celled eukaryotes were created when prokaryotes began to live with oxygen (aerobic) and became larger in size 68. Method to date rocks, looks at the decay of radioactive isotopes (all living organisms have isotopes and some are radioactive so when they die those radioactive isotopes begin to breakdown) 69. The amoun of time it takes for half of the radioactive isotope to decay (ex: carbon 14= 5,730 years) 70. The order fossils are found within the layers of rock 71. When things happened, when organisms were created, dates, ect. 72. 3 eras: a. Paleozoic: ancient animal (mostly water animals) b. Mesozoic: middle animal (reptiles) c. Cenozoic: recent animal (mammals, birds, insects) 73. Layers of the Earth: a. Crust: continents and sea floor b. Mantle: under the crust; hot, thick material c. Outer Core: liquid d. Inner Core: Solid 74. The Earth’s crust is broken up into large plates that are just resting on the mantle 75. When the mantle moves so does the tectonic plates; sometimes they move apart, other times they move together. When plates slide past one another it causes earthquakes and if plates hit each other mountain ranges can form. 76. Consequences: a. 250 million years ago the super continent (aka Pangea): i. caused all shallow water habitats to diminish ii. the middle of the super continent was cold and dry iii. caused major evolution and extinction due to so many habitat changes b. When Pangea split: i. The habitats began to change again ii. Isolation of species also occurred c. 65 million years ago our continents today were beginning to take shape: i. Indian plate and Eurasian plates collided creating the Himalayas 1. Still getting taller each year 77. The study of where (location) animals were and are now 78. Reasons for extinction: a. Habitat change b. Climate change c. Changes in predator or new predators arise 79. When there is a change and a majority of species goes extinct 80. Permian and Cretaceous 81. 2 major mass extinctions a. Permian i. Volcanic eruptions (Siberia) ii. The CO2 released by all these eruptions warmed the Earth (6 degrees Celsius) iii. The lava covered large amounts of land iv. The warming depleted the O2 levels in the oceans killing most marine animals 1. Lack of oxygen made anaerobic bacteria thrive and their by-product is a poisonous substance, hydrogen sulfide, which left the ocean and killed many plants and animals 2. Also hydrogen sulfide harmed the ozone layer 82. Cretaceous a. Many think an asteroid hit Earth b. Caused a cloud of hot vapor and debris that killed most everything on Earth 83. Consequences: a. Biodiversity is ruined b. Change in evolution c. Kill off complex ecosystems d. 5-10 million years to return to the biodiversity and complex ecosystems after a mass extinction 84. Occurs after a mass extinction when the few species left have to evolve to survive a. Mammals thrived following the extinction of the dinosaurs b. Insects are the most diverse animal on Earth 85. To look at small changes in genes that are causing large structural changes 86. The changing of how an animal grows from a child to an adult a. With evolution some of the “child” aspects may be present on an adult animal b. The rate at which the body parts grow changes with evolution as well 87. Homeotic gene=controls where everything on your body goes (ex: decides where the wings on a bird goes) a. Changes in this gene have a large effect on a species 88. When a gene is mutated it causes changes to a species a. If a gene is duplicated it could create a whole new species i. When a gene was duplicated in an invertebrate it created the vertebrate 89. Often the change in gene regulation of a species creates a new species a. Mutations often cause problems with regular gene development 90. False; evolution isn’t goal oriented; it occurs when an environment changes 91. Evolutionary history 92. Convergent evolution: a. When animals from different ancestors have a lot of the same structures due to living in the same environment and natural selection causing them to have the same adaptations 93. A section of biology that classifies species and their evolutionary patterns 94. Binomial 95. 1 word in a specie’s scientific name; genus= group of related species 96. 2ndword in a specie’s scientific name; specific epithet= this tells each species apart within a group (genus) 97. Hierarchy of Categories a. Family b. Order c. Class d. Phyla e. Kingdom f. Domain 98. Used to predict or show current animals and link them back to their common ancestors 99. The most common way to sort species a. Uses common ancestors to group b. Each group of organisms= clade 100. A trait shared with more than one group and the trait cannot determine one group from another (ex: both mammals and vertebrates have backbones so you cannot use that trait to determine between the two) 101. A trait the descendants of a common ancestor all have but the common ancestor didn’t 102. Have to compare the out group to the in group: a. Out group: the species in the tree that came prior to the species we are looking at b. In group: the species we are looking at 103. Simplest expression of the life processes or characteristics a. Used to create trees with small amounts of evolutionary change 104. No matter how much evidence we have about species phylogenetic trees can always change 105. Uses a molecular makeup within a species (such as DNA) to compare it to the other species with the same common ancestor 106. An estimation of how long it will take for evolution to happen 107. Three Domain System: i. Archaea (Prokaryotes) ii. Bacteria (prokaryotes) iii. Eukarya (eukaryotes) 108. Horizontal gene transfers; viral infection or fusion of organisms 109. Study of how organisms associate and function with their environment 110. Biotic: the living parts of an environment and Abiotic: the nonliving parts of an environment 111. Organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere 112. Looks at a single organism to see how it is adapting to challenges it is faced with in its environment 113. A group of organisms that is studied to see how the group can be affected (positively/negatively) 114. All of the populations which interact with each other in an environment (all the biotic factors within the habitat) 115. Both biotic and abiotic factors with in an environment (ex: looking to see how the energy flows through an ecosystem) 116. Multiple ecosystems studied to see where an ecosystem starts and ends 117. Everything on Earth and how we interact 118. The sun 119. Temperature effects metabolism of organisms greatly; if it is 0 degrees Celsius and below organisms cannot function. If it is 45 degrees Celsius and above enzymes with in organism’s body are destroyed 120. Not enough oxygen within the water 121. Near the equator, doesn’t have different seasons; usually warm all year round 122. Light wind at the Equator 123. Rainforests are located near the equator because the temp. and energy received often makes it rain 124. Cool winds created by dry air from the deserts go back toward the equator where they are warmed back up and moisture is picked up by this air 125. It is located between the equator and the poles. They have all 4 seasons (spring, summer, fall, winter) 126. Rise and falling of air masses create patterns along with the Earth’s tilt/movement 127. Winds that blow west east 128. Created through the prevailing wind patterns (westerlies, trade winds, and doldrums), the heating of water, and where the continents are and their shape 129. False 130. The effect of abiotic factors 131. Pelagic realm: open water where zooplankton, fish, and marine mammals live Benthic realm: seafloor where sponges, burrow worms, clams, and crabs live (no sunlight reaches here) Photic Zone: 200m of light penetration includes the pelagic realm Continental shelves: very shallow waters Aphotic zone: below the photic zone; not enough sunlight for photosynthesis (little amount of light though Below 1000 m the ocean is completely dark (zero light) 132. Intertidal zone: where ocean meets land 133. River merges with ocean; this is the most productive biome on Earth due to the varying amounts of saltiness 134. The place where a marine or freshwater source meets land (aquatic ecosystem and terrestrial ecosystem 135. 1% of Earth; .01% of water on Earth; need them for drinking water, many organisms live here; 2 categories= Lakes and ponds and River and streams 136. organism and plants are in certain places due to water depth and distance from shore a. photic zone: phytoplankton and plants often grow close to shore b. some lakes and ponds aren’t deep enough or murky enough to have an aphotic zone (where photosynthesis cannot occur) c. benthic realm: microorganisms help to decompose any dead organisms on the bottom of the lake or pond 137. there are layers of warm and cold water i. the top layer of water is warm in the summer due to the sun but if you swim deeper you will feel the change between the warm layer to the cold layer where sun doesn’t reach 138. major changes between where the river/stream begins to where it meets a lake/ponds i. near the beginning of a river/stream the water is cold, clear, and have little to no nutrients ii. narrow iii. fast current iv. phytoplankton grow here v. anything that lives here uses photosynthetic algae as support for life vi. trout live here; feed on insect larvae b. down streams i. widens ii. slows iii. warmer, murkier water iv. catfish, frogs, fish, insects that burrow in mud are abundant here 139. Tropical forests: close to the equator, warm temperatures, long days all year long a. Two types: i. Little rain: Tropical Dry forest ii. Lots of rains: Tropical Rainforest 140. Tropical dry forest i. Thorny shrubs ii. Deciduous trees iii. Succulents 141. Tropical Rainforest i. Very humid ii. 79-159 inches of rain each year iii. 300 species of tree in 2.5 iv. has many layers with different habitats 1. contains a closed canopy 2. a little sun reaches the forest floor 3. many animals live in the trees a. more food b. safety c. shelter 142. contains grasslands with scattered trees i. warm temp. all year ii. only 12-20 inches of rain per year 1. usually all at once or over a small period of time iii. not good soil 1. also fires and animals inhibit the ability for trees to grow 143. The point where grasses actually grow from are below ground; are able to live through a drought 144. Driest biome; little rainfall and it is random timing when rain does fall; i. usually less than 12 inches of rain per year ii. can occur on the far side of mountains where rain never reaches iii. the temp. in a desert can reach 140 degrees Fahrenheit during the day iv. other deserts reach -22 degrees Fahrenheit at night v. plant life is dependent on rainfall 1. zero rainfall= little to no vegetation 2. little rainfall= cactus, succulents, and other plants that store water 145. desertification: when a semiarid region changes into a desert due to humans 146. a place with evergreen shrubs (dense, spiny leaves) i. climate= cool ocean currents 1. mild/rainy winters 2. hot/dry summers ii. coastal areaslargest one= Mediterranean iii. animals: deer, fruit-eating birds, lizard, snakes 147. has to adapt due to fires; so plants keep food stored underground in their roots to be able to rebuild quickly 148. closely related to savannas but without trees (trees are only present around rivers and streams) i. 10-30 inches of rain a year (droughts are common) ii. fires and grazing animals effect the ability to grow trees iii. animals: 1. bison, wild horses, sheep, birds, small mammals (live underground) iv. very good soil 1. lots of microorganisms and insects v. amount of rain determines how tall the grass in a specific prairie is 149. places with plenty of water to grow large trees i. contains trees which have leaves that fall off in the fall/winter seasons ii. depending on climate, soil, ect the trees are different iii. Climate: 1. Cold winters 2. Hot summers 3. 30-60 inches of rain per year a. continues regularly throughout the year 150. coniferous forests are dominated by a few species of trees i. evergreens, pine, fir, and hemlock 151. Taiga= largest land biome i. Cool, high elevations (mountains) ii. Long cold winters and short wet summers iii. Precipitation= snow 152. Between the Taiga and polar ice (no trees present) i. Climate: 1. Extremely cold 2. Little sunlight in fall and winter ii. Contains permafrost iii. Animals: 1. Musk, oxen, caribou, rodents, fox, snowy owl 153. Permafrost= frozen subsoil i. Little precipitation (as much as desert) but it never drains due to the frozen soil ii. Plants cannot root very far down 154. North of tundra (lots of the Atlantic is frozen), Antarctica i. Climate: 1. Cold; little precipitation ii. Some mosses and other plants are able to grow here iii. Animals 1. Seals, penguins, marine birds, and polar bears 155. The water cycle 156. A group of organisms in the same species that live in the same habitat 157. Increasing: immigration and birth 158. Decreasing: emigration and death 159. Used to create an estimate of how many organisms are in an environment i. It is the # of individuals of a species per unit area 160. 3 dispersion patterns: a. Clumped dispersion pattern: (most common dispersion in nature) the organism is clumped in groups throughout the habitat; usually due to resources b. Uniform dispersion pattern: basically the same distance between individuals c. Random dispersion pattern: randomly in the environment (ex: weeds) 161. Survivorship Curves: a. Type 1: parental care, only have a few offspring (ex: people) b. Type 2: they have a random chance of dying at anytime c. Type 3: no parental care; have lots of babies; short life spans 162. Exponential 163. J-shape 164. G=rN 165. G= growth rate of population N= population size r= per capita rate of increase (# of offspring a female has) 166. G= rN ((K-N)/K) 167. S-curved graph 168. K=carrying capacity the max amount of organisms within a species an environment can support 169. Density-dependent processes i. As the # of individuals increase some process has a higher impact if there are more individuals in an environment 170. Competing for limited resources between the same species i. Density-dependent factor 171. Density-independent factors= usually weather or natural disasters (droughts, fires, seasonal changes, ect)

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Chapter 21, Problem 80AE is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724. Since the solution to 80AE from 21 chapter was answered, more than 605 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 80AE from chapter: 21 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 04/03/17, 07:58AM. The answer to “A 26.00-g sample of water containing tritium, 31 H, emits 1.50 × 103 beta particles per second. Tritium is a weak beta emitter with a half-life of 12.3 yr. What fraction of all the hydrogen in the water sample is tritium?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 41 words. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. This full solution covers the following key subjects: tritium, beta, Water, sample, hydrogen. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 49 chapters, and 5471 solutions.

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A 26.00-g sample of water containing tritium, 31 H, emits