In 1-10, show that the given line integral is independent of the path. Evaluate in two ways :(a) Find a potential function cp and then use Theorem 9.9.1, and (b) Use any convenient path between the endpoints of the path. 2 on any path not crossing the x-axis ( 4, 1

Ch. 4 Probability • Statistics: the science of decision-making in the face of uncertainty • Probability: a numerical measure of the likelihood that an outcome or an event occurs • Probability of an event A = P(A) • Requirements for Probability of Discrete Variables: o 0 <= P(A) <= 1 o When P(A) = 0, it is an impossible event o When P(A) = 1 it...