Patterns of Nuclear Stability (Section)
One nuclide in each of these pairs is radioactive. Predict which is radioactive and which is stable:
(a) 4020Ca and 4520Ca, (b) 12C and 14C, (c) lead-206 and thorium-230. Explain your choice in each case.
02/22/16 Over Here: World War I and the Triumph of Corporate Liberalism I. Progressivism and War II. An Industrial Army III. Regimentation of Thought IV. Race and Class Terms Consumer Capitalism George Creel ‘Committee Corporate Liberalism on Public Information’ SelfFulfillment League of Nations Bureaucracies Treaty of Versailles Woodrow Wilson Chicago Race Riots War Industries Board “Red Scare” Selective Service Act A. Mitchell Palmer I. Progressivism and War World War I result of progressivism movement o War= greed, power politic o Progressivism= products of democratic policies, very clean o War had no place Woodrow Wilson o President (1912), aggressive democratic 3 way race (Woodrow, Taff, Roosevelt) o Progressive reformer o Regulate competition Government should regulate economics, big business into smaller units, and control big corporations o 1916, 2 term, peace candidate, slogan “He kept us out of war” o Personal: Victorian Christian gentleman Virginia family, prosperterians PHD in government, wrote books, President of Princeton, governor of New Jersey World War I o 1914, Europe, rand vision of alliances Germany, Austria, Turkey Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy Eastern Europe, assassination Alliances took sides because of this o 191516, Europe (France and lower countries) Ground war of trench Had machine gun, tanks, poisonous gas 100,000+ men killed o Oceans Submarine warfare (Germans) Atlantic, Mediterranean o 191617,USA Old tradition, decided to mind business Pressure from both sides to get involved Opinion about war shifts Woodrow was very English (sided w/ great the English) AntiGermany (invasion of low countries such as Netherlands, etc.), submarines April 1917, declaration of war, ally of English and French American involvement would be a moral crusade War would be a moral crusade to make the world safe for democracy II. An Industrial Army Linkage war effort and progressive ideology Uncle Sam regulate groups Progressives see war to push along progressivism Industrial Army Economic o 1917, economy heats up Tremendous economic demand (food, uniforms, etc.) 1917, England and French economies bleed white Couldn’t produce anymore Want all of the Americans goods Government planners got control of this Regulatory of economy (After war) o Ex: War Industries Board Regulate production Responsible to fund industries for war Big manager of industry economy for war effort, good for progressives Board to regulate railroad, shipping, labor (issues), agriculture Progressives saw war to put corporate liberalism in effect Real Army moves the same way o Ex: Selective Service Act May 1917 passed, draft, created real army, mobilizes army End of war, 24 million drafted, 34 million on wait list III. Regimental of Thought Wilson concerned about mobilizing public opinion 191718, public relation campaign o Get public behind war ethic o Effort to stamp out Germany influence Food campaign (changed the name of German foods in America) Schools campaign (German language banded to learn) Books campaign (books by Germans pulled out of libraries, sometimes burned) o War bonds (liberty loans) Everybody promoting these bonds If you didn’t buy war bonds, called treasonist George Creel ‘Committee of Public Information’ o Created to get people into endure war o Founded by government o Created posters, painting, etc. o Brought pressure on males Post masters saw anything against war that those things should be destroyed o After war, arrested critics (15,000+ people) November 1918, America turned tide o Germans pushed back into Germany o Pressured by government, government and army collapsed o War ended, Germany surrendered o Disillusion of end of World War I Wilson saw it as a victory o League of Nations International organization that kept war from happening Go there to talk out problems Speeches in Europe of League of Nations Treaty of Versailles o Ended war o Harsh towards Germany o Disillusion Congress rejects League of Nations o Wilson goes around and gives speeches Has a bad stroke Spent rest of presidency in bedroom Wilson wife, first female president Protected him Made political decisions Stroke was symbolic Medical stroke= crippling of old Victorian culture, progressivism IV. Race and Class End of war o Modern, issues arise Racial issues o African Americans got a lot of good jobs during war o Economy cools down o African Americans lost jobs when war ended (Chicago, St. Louis, Philly, etc.) o Unemployment rising, ghetto, crime, backlash from white workers Chicago Race Riots (1919) o Beach of Lake Michigan o Tension erupted o 34 days long o Several days of violence, destruction of property o Meant racial problems, after WWI, was a northern and international problem Class Issues o Lose jobs in industry o A lot of strikes o “Red Scare” Revolution of Russia o Government cracks down on unions (Mitchell) Communist in disguise 02/24/16 The Incorporation of America II: Capital and Labor in Modern America I. Efficiency for Profit II. Traditional Unionism (Trade Unions Movement) III. New Unionism Terms Frederick Winslow Taylor Hawthorne Experiment Scientific Management AFL Time and Motion studies Samuel Gompers Industrial Psychology Elton Mayo Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Protective Legislation I. Efficiency for Profit Revolutionary process in economic/industrial production Efficiency – political life, bureaucry Breaking work down into tiniest part, recombining them o = Greater production/profit Frederick Winslow Taylor o Scientific Management o Born before WW (1856) o Interested in industry/ engineering o Gets into industry o Focus attention on efficiency in industry o Victorian gentleman o Obsessed with selfcontrol Ex: Couldn’t control sexual dreams and effects, made a leather harness with nails to stop effects o Concludes industry process is unorganized and needs to be reorganized o 1911, Principles of Scientific Management Argues that: 1) Brainwork needs to be illuminated (workers do something because they can’t do anything else) rules, laws, and formulas 2) Authority should be in the of managers o Time and motion studies Timed every action of worker Reorganized process to cut time out for faster production o Taylorism swept through American industry, assembly line Industrial psychology o Pioneered by Elton Mayo Professor for Harvard of business and engineering Famous for Hawthorne Experiments Took place in plant in Chicago Efficiency studies Concluded that when they were looking at them, production went up Make this a new way of production Industrial psychology Pay attention to workers psychology to get more production Recommended 15 minute breaks (renewed workers energy) Lounges created for breaks (Production goes up) Music (even out biorhythms throughout the day) Identifying with company (Company softball teams) Job counselors II. Traditional Unionism (Trade Union Movement) AFL, Led by Samuel Gompers o Swept through American industry Trade Unions o Drive for seat at the table o Better wages/working conditions, and better working hours o Reject radicalism, socialism o Leaders begin to led movement into alliance o Try to become partner in corporate liberal vision AFL (S.G.) o Make a deal o Accept Taylorism, assembly line, old fashion ideas of worked tossed out o Modern world work is made for good wages, consumerism (participate in consumer economy) Protective Legislation o What trade unions are after o Ex: Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Lower east side of New York 100+ immigrant women 1911, managers thought women weren’t working enough (too much playing) Solution: lock doors from outside 47 women jumped out window, 11020 died in building Result: New York State Factory Commission (government agency) Looked at labor issues, regulation, safety, and wages Labor leaders Came up with sweeping regulations for companies o National Labor Board Aimed at setting labor problems before strikes and labor hindering production Union leaders (S.G) Government agency III. New Unionism Applied to minority of workers o Not accepting of new ideas (resisted AFL, trade union movement, Taylorism, assembly line) o Radical o Angry about assembly line = dehumanizing o Want more radical solutions Workers gaining control over industry, organizing workers everywhere o IWW (Industry Worker of the World) Radical Led by Big Bill Haywood Led lobbies into sabotage of factories, violent labor strikes Involved with bloody strikes (steel and mining industry) Crusted at WWI (after Red scare) Government moved against them (Jailed Went underground Important because represented problems in American industry (work became degraded)